Table 1: Demographic data of the healthy controls and the studied subjects with CP, T1DM (and the T1DM + CP subgroup).

CharacteristicsControls
CP
T1DM
T1DM + CP

Age (mean years ± SD)48.5 ± 10.752.5 ± 9.846.4 ± 13.849.9 ± 10.6
Sex (males/females)75/79112/13267/5816/22
Smoking (no/yes, %)71.1/28.973.9/26.178.9/21.1#78.9/21.1
BMI (mean ± SD)23.2 ± 4.626.4 ± 3.725.0 ± 4.925.3 ± 3.1
Duration of DM
(mean years ± SD)
22.8 ± 10.324.0 ± 11.3
HbA1c (mmol/mol, mean ± SD)76.5 ± 17.369.9 ± 11.4
DN (no/yes, %)52.9/47.171.9/28.1
DR (no/yes, %)30.4/69.642.4/57.6
DPN (no/yes, %)39.3/60.747.1/52.9

BMI = body mass index, CP = chronic periodontitis, DN = diabetic nephropathy, DPN = diabetic peripheral neuropathy, DR = diabetic retinopathy, HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin, = number of subjects, SD = standard deviation, and T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus.
#Smoking status is known only in T1DM patients with CP.