Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(a) Ratios of the median concentrations of each serum cytokine in the CS, S1, S2 and S3 groups expressed as percentages of these median concentrations in the NS control group. The symbol representing each cytokine is as shown in (b)–(d). The solid, short horizontal lines represent the median ratios to NS of the 13 cytokines in each group. The dashed horizontal line, which represents the median ratio to NS of the CS group. Compared to the CS group, cytokine ratios to NS were significantly higher in the S2 and S3 groups. (b)–(d) Representations of the data in (a) presented to facilitate analysis of the relative difference in expression of each serum cytokine between the CS, S1, S2 and S3 groups, divided into “Th1/Th2/Treg” cytokines (b), “chemokines” (c) and “inflammatory cytokines and growth factor” (d). The dashed horizontal lines represent the standardised cytokine concentrations in the NS group (i.e., 100%).