Research Article

Kinin Peptides Enhance Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Promoting Apoptosis in a Parkinson’s Disease Cellular Model

Figure 4

The induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in differentiated SK-N-SH cells stimulated with kinin peptides. Confluent cell cultures were treated with 1 μM BK or 1 μM DAKD without or in the presence of 2.5 mM MPP+ as described in Materials and Methods. The mRNA expression and protein production for TNF-α (a, b, c), IL-1β (d, e, f), and IL-6 (g, h, i) were analyzed by Real-Time PCR and ELISA. The figures show the percentage changes of mRNA expression as compared with control samples, assumed to possess 100% expression (dashed line) from at least three experiments performed in duplicate. The amount of released protein was normalized to the amount of sample protein and the results are shown as mean values ± SD from three experiments performed in triplicate. versus untreated cells; versus MPP+-stimulated cells; versus cells stimulated with kinin peptides and MPP+.