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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4854378, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4854378
Research Article

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Mediates Nicotine-Induced Anti-Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells Exposed to β Amyloid via Protein Kinase C

1Department of Anesthesiology, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010, China
2Department of Anesthesiology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070, China

Received 17 October 2015; Revised 7 December 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Magdalena Klink

Copyright © 2016 Ji Jia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is considered to be effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nicotine attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation; the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Microglia could be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state); the former is cytotoxic and the latter is neurotrophic. In this investigation, we hypothesized that nicotine attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by shifting microglial M1 to M2 state, and cannabinoid CB2 receptor and protein kinase C mediate the process. Methods. We used Aβ1–42 to activate N9 microglial cells and observed nicotine-induced effects on microglial M1 and M2 biomarkers by using western blot, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. We found that nicotine reduced the levels of M1 state markers, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6 releases; meanwhile, it increased the levels of M2 state markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, in the Aβ-stimulated microglia. Coadministration of cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor partially abolished the nicotine-induced effects. Conclusion. These findings indicated that cannabinoid CB2 receptor mediates nicotine-induced anti-inflammation in microglia exposed to Aβ via PKC.