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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 5359768, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5359768
Research Article

Serotonin-Exacerbated DSS-Induced Colitis Is Associated with Increase in MMP-3 and MMP-9 Expression in the Mouse Colon

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Clinical Medicine, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
2Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Clinical Medicine, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
3Department of Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
4Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital of Capital Medical University, 1 Gongliao Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100114, China

Received 3 March 2016; Revised 24 April 2016; Accepted 29 May 2016

Academic Editor: Mirella Giovarelli

Copyright © 2016 Menglu Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. 5-HT enhances dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play roles in the process of intestinal inflammation. Aims. To examine whether 5-HT induces MMPs expression in mouse colon to enhance DSS-induced colitis. Materials and Methods. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were treated with either low-dose (1.0 mg/kg) or high-dose (2.0 mg/kg) 5-HT by enema, low-dose (1.0%) or high-dose (2.5%) DSS, or combined low-dose (1.0%) DSS and (1.0 mg/kg) 5-HT. Mouse colitis was analyzed. MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in mouse colon and in human Caco-2 cells and neutrophils. MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were quantified from immunohistochemistry (IHC) images of mouse colons. Results. 5-HT exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, low-dose 5-HT induces both MMP-3 and MMP-9, and high-dose 5-HT only increased MMP-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon. Mouse colon MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were also elevated by 5-HT treatment. The MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were increased in the inflamed colon. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 mRNA expression in Caco-2 and human neutrophils, respectively, in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression in mouse colon; these elevated MMPs may contribute to DSS-induced colitis.