Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 5365209, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5365209
Review Article

Long Noncoding RNAs in Metabolic Syndrome Related Disorders

Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Department of General Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland

Received 12 May 2016; Accepted 5 October 2016

Academic Editor: Teresa Zelante

Copyright © 2016 Magdalena Losko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Sun and W. L. Kraus, “From discovery to function: the expanding roles of long noncoding RNAs in physiology and disease,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 25–64, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. E. Wilusz, H. Sunwoo, and D. L. Spector, “Long noncoding RNAs: functional surprises from the RNA world,” Genes and Development, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1494–1504, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. P. Ponting, P. L. Oliver, and W. Reik, “Evolution and functions of long noncoding RNAs,” Cell, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 629–641, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. R. Mercer, M. E. Dinger, and J. S. Mattick, “Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 155–159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Guttman, I. Amit, M. Garber et al., “Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals,” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7235, pp. 223–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Hangauer, I. W. Vaughn, and M. T. McManus, “Pervasive transcription of the human genome produces thousands of previously unidentified long intergenic noncoding RNAs,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 9, no. 6, Article ID e1003569, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Pircher, J. Gebetsberger, and N. Polacek, “Ribosome-associated ncRNAs: an emerging class of translation regulators,” RNA Biology, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1335–1339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Kurokawa, M. G. Rosenfeld, and C. K. Glass, “Transcriptional regulation through noncoding RNAs and epigenetic modifications,” RNA Biology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 233–236, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. C. Wang, Y. W. Yang, B. Liu et al., “A long noncoding RNA maintains active chromatin to coordinate homeotic gene expression,” Nature, vol. 472, no. 7341, pp. 120–124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Krawczyk and B. M. Emerson, “P50-associated COX-2 Extragenic RNA (pacer) activates human COX-2 gene expression by occluding repressive NF-κB p50 complexes,” eLife, vol. 2014, no. 3, Article ID e01776, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Li, T.-C. Chao, K.-Y. Chang et al., “The long noncoding RNA THRIL regulates TNFα expression through its interaction with hnRNPL,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 1002–1007, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Tripathi, J. D. Ellis, Z. Shen et al., “The nuclear-retained noncoding RNA MALAT1 regulates alternative splicing by modulating SR splicing factor phosphorylation,” Molecular Cell, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 925–938, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Carrieri, L. Cimatti, M. Biagioli et al., “Long non-coding antisense RNA controls Uchl1 translation through an embedded SINEB2 repeat,” Nature, vol. 491, no. 7424, pp. 454–457, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J.-H. Yoon, K. Abdelmohsen, S. Srikantan et al., “LincRNA-p21 suppresses target mRNA translation,” Molecular Cell, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 648–655, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. A. Barness, J. M. Opitz, and E. Gilbert-Barness, “Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, vol. 143, no. 24, pp. 3016–3034, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. J. Fowler, “Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 77–82, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Stojsavljevic, M. Gomerčić Palčić, L. Virović Jukić, L. Smirčić Duvnjak, and M. Duvnjak, “Adipokines and proinflammatory cytokines, the key mediators in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 48, pp. 18070–18091, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. E. Galkina and K. Ley, “Immune and inflammatory mechanisms of atherosclerosis,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 27, pp. 165–197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Mantovani, P. Allavena, A. Sica, and F. Balkwill, “Cancer-related inflammation,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 436–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Sun, X. Liu, Z. Yi et al., “Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA expression profiles in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” IUBMB Life, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 847–852, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. S. Mattick, P. P. Amaral, M. E. Dinger, T. R. Mercer, and M. F. Mehler, “RNA regulation of epigenetic processes,” BioEssays, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Zhang, Z.-M. Shi, Y.-N. Chang, Z.-M. Hu, H.-X. Qi, and W. Hong, “The ways of action of long non-coding RNAs in cytoplasm and nucleus,” Gene, vol. 547, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. T. Willingham, A. P. Orth, S. Batalov et al., “A strategy for probing the function of noncoding RNAs finds a repressor of NFAT,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5740, pp. 1570–1573, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. C. J. Brown, B. D. Hendrich, J. L. Rupert et al., “The human XIST gene: analysis of a 17 kb inactive X-specific RNA that contains conserved repeats and is highly localized within the nucleus,” Cell, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 527–542, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. C. Roberts, K. V. Morris, and M. S. Weinberg, “Perspectives on the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by long non-coding RNAs,” Epigenetics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Chu, K. Qu, F. Zhong, S. Artandi, and H. Chang, “Genomic maps of long noncoding RNA occupancy reveal principles of rna-chromatin interactions,” Molecular Cell, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 667–678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. A. Rapicavoli, K. Qu, J. Zhang, M. Mikhail, R.-M. Laberge, and H. Y. Chang, “A mammalian pseudogene lncRNA at the interface of inflammation and antiinflammatory therapeutics,” eLife, vol. 2013, no. 2, Article ID e00762, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Huarte, M. Guttman, D. Feldser et al., “A large intergenic noncoding RNA induced by p53 mediates global gene repression in the p53 response,” Cell, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 409–419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Carpenter, D. Aiello, M. K. Atianand et al., “A long noncoding RNA mediates both activation and repression of immune response genes,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6147, pp. 789–792, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. S. Mao, H. Sunwoo, B. Zhang, and D. L. Spector, “Direct visualization of the co-transcriptional assembly of a nuclear body by noncoding RNAs,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. A. Faghihi, M. Zhang, J. Huang et al., “Evidence for natural antisense transcript-mediated inhibition of microRNA function,” Genome Biology, vol. 11, no. 5, article R54, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Gong and L. E. Maquat, “LncRNAs transactivate STAU1-mediated mRNA decay by duplexing with 39 UTRs via Alu eleme,” Nature, vol. 470, no. 7333, pp. 284–290, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Akira, S. Uematsu, and O. Takeuchi, “Pathogen recognition and innate immunity,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 783–801, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Medzhitov, “Inflammation 2010: new adventures of an old flame,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 771–776, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Takeda, T. Kaisho, and S. Akira, “Toll-like receptors,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 21, pp. 335–376, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Carpenter and K. A. Fitzgerald, “Transcription of inflammatory genes: long noncoding RNA and beyond,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Jura and A. Koj, Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Inflammation and Synthesis of Acute Phase Proteins, INTECH Open Access, 2011.
  38. C. Nathan and A. Ding, “Nonresolving inflammation,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 871–882, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Medzhitov and T. Horng, “Transcriptional control of the inflammatory response,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 692–703, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Ghosh, M. J. May, and E. B. Kopp, “NF-κB and rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 16, pp. 225–260, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB in immunobiology,” Cell Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Fact sheet No. 311, “Obesity and overweight,” WHO, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
  43. R. G. Baker, M. S. Hayden, and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB, inflammation, and metabolic disease,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. I. Schmidt and B. B. Duncan, “Diabesity: an inflammatory metabolic condition,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1120–1130, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. F. Van Gaal, I. L. Mertens, and C. E. De Block, “Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7121, pp. 875–880, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante Jr., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 112, no. 12, pp. 1796–1808, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. U. Kintscher, M. Hartge, K. Hess et al., “T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue: a primary event in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of obesity-mediated insulin resistance,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1304–1310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Lin, H. Lee, A. H. Berg, M. P. Lisanti, L. Shapiro, and P. E. Scherer, “The lipopolysaccharide-activated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 induces synthesis of the closely related receptor TLR-2 in adipocytes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 32, pp. 24255–24263, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. D. Rosen and B. M. Spiegelman, “Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7121, pp. 847–853, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. D. Rosen and O. A. MacDougald, “Adipocyte differentiation from the inside out,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 885–896, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Tontonoz, R. A. Graves, A. I. Budavari et al., “Adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 is a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear hormone receptors, PPARγ and RXRα,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 5628–5634, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. I. Lefterova, Y. Zhang, D. J. Steger et al., “PPARγ and C/EBP factors orchestrate adipocyte biology via adjacent binding on a genome-wide scale,” Genes and Development, vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 2941–2952, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Oishi, I. Manabe, K. Tobe et al., “Krüppel-like transcription factor KLF5 is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 27–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. E. Ross, N. Hemati, K. A. Longo et al., “Inhibition of adipogenesis by Wnt signaling,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5481, pp. 950–953, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. B. Xu, I. Gerin, H. Miao et al., “Multiple roles for the non-coding RNA SRA in regulation of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 12, article e14199, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. B. Lanz, N. J. McKenna, S. A. Onate et al., “A steroid receptor coactivator, SRA, functions as an RNA and is present in an SRC-1 complex,” Cell, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 17–27, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Liu, R. Xu, I. Gerin et al., “SRA regulates adipogenesis by modulating p38/jnk phosphorylation and stimulating insulin receptor gene expression and downstream signaling,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, Article ID e95416, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Liu, L. Sheng, H. Miao et al., “SRA gene knockout protects against diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 289, no. 19, pp. 13000–13009, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Xiao, L. Liu, H. Li et al., “Long noncoding RNA ADINR regulates adipogenesis by transcriptionally activating C/EBPα,” Stem Cell Reports, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 856–865, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. W.-J. Pang, L.-G. Lin, Y. Xiong et al., “Knockdown of PU.1 AS lncRNA inhibits adipogenesis through enhancing PU.1 mRNA translation,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 114, no. 11, pp. 2500–2512, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. D. G. Tenen, R. Hromas, J. D. Licht, and D.-E. Zhang, “Transcription factors, normal myeloid development, and leukemia,” Blood, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 489–519, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. Wang and Q. Tong, “Transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in white adipose and inhibits adipocyte differentiation,” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. C213–C220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. Wei, Y. Wang, R.-X. Xu et al., “PU.1 antisense lncRNA against its mRNA translation promotes adipogenesis in porcine preadipocytes,” Animal Genetics, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Sun, L. A. Goff, C. Trapnell et al., “Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 3387–3392, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Nedergaard, T. Bengtsson, and B. Cannon, “Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans,” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 293, no. 2, pp. E444–E452, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. M. Cypess, S. Lehman, G. Williams et al., “Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 15, pp. 1509–1517, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Nedergaard and B. Cannon, “The changed metabolic world with human brown adipose tissue: therapeutic visions,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 268–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. X.-Y. Zhao, S. Li, G.-X. Wang, Q. Yu, and J. D. Lin, “A long noncoding RNA transcriptional regulatory circuit drives thermogenic adipocyte differentiation,” Molecular Cell, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 372–382, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. H. You, L. J. Zhu, L. Yang et al., “Transcriptome analysis reveals the potential contribution of long noncoding RNAs to brown adipocyte differentiation,” Molecular Genetics and Genomics, vol. 290, no. 5, pp. 1659–1671, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. R. Alvarez-Dominguez, Z. Bai, D. Xu et al., “De novo reconstruction of adipose tissue transcriptomes reveals long non-coding RNA regulators of brown adipocyte development,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 764–776, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. R. Gernapudi, B. Wolfson, Y. Zhang et al., “MicroRNA 140 promotes expression of long noncoding RNA NEAT1 in adipogenesis,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. V. Ratziu, “Starting the battle to control non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” The Lancet, vol. 385, no. 9972, pp. 922–924, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Singh, A. M. Allen, Z. Wang, L. J. Prokop, M. H. Murad, and R. Loomba, “Fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver vs nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paired-biopsy studies,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 643–654.e9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. Loomba and A. J. Sanyal, “The global NAFLD epidemic,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 686–690, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. WHO, “Diabetes,” Fact Sheet 312, 2016, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. E. Kitabchi, G. E. Umpierrez, J. M. Miles, and J. N. Fisher, “Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1335–1343, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. American Diabetes Association, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. S62–S69, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. U. Risérus, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu, “Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Prentki and C. J. Nolan, “Islet β cell failure in type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1802–1812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. E. Shaw, R. A. Sicree, and P. Z. Zimmet, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 4–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. M. Ku, H. Kim, I. W. Vaughn et al., “Research resource: RNA-seq reveals unique features of the pancreatic β-cell transcriptome,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1783–1792, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. I. Morán, I. Akerman, M. Van De Bunt et al., “Human β cell transcriptome analysis uncovers lncRNAs that are tissue-specific, dynamically regulated, and abnormally expressed in type 2 diabetes,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 435–448, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. S. Cho, C.-H. Chen, C. Hu et al., “Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians,” Nature Genetics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  84. V. Senée, C. Chelala, S. Duchatelet et al., “Mutations in GLIS3 are responsible for a rare syndrome with neonatal diabetes mellitus and congenital hypothyroidism,” Nature Genetics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 682–687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. R. Huyghe, A. U. Jackson, M. P. Fogarty et al., “Exome array analysis identifies new loci and low-frequency variants influencing insulin processing and secretion,” Nature Genetics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Gosmain, L. S. Katz, M. H. Masson, C. Cheyssac, C. Poisson, and J. Philippe, “Pax6 is crucial for β-cell function, insulin biosynthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 696–709, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Fadista, P. Vikman, E. O. Laakso et al., “Global genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human pancreatic islets reveals novel genes influencing glucose metabolism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 38, pp. 13924–13929, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Z. Fu, E. R. Gilbert, and D. Liu, “Regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes,” Current Diabetes Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25–53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Yan, Z.-F. Tao, X.-M. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, and Q. Jiang, “Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in early diabetic retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 941–951, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. O. Wapinski and H. Y. Chang, “Long noncoding RNAs and human disease,” Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 354–361, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J.-Y. Liu, J. Yao, X.-M. Li et al., “Pathogenic role of lncRNA-MALAT1 in endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus,” Cell Death and Disease, vol. 5, no. 10, Article ID e1506, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. Yan, J. Yao, J.-Y. Liu et al., “LncRNA-MIAT regulates microvascular dysfunction by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA,” Circulation Research, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1143–1156, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. I. Zachary and R. D. Morgan, “Therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiovascular disease: biological context, challenges, prospects,” Heart, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 181–189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G.-Z. Qiu, W. Tian, H.-T. Fu, C.-P. Li, and B. Liu, “Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 is involved in diabetes mellitus-related microvascular dysfunction,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 471, no. 1, pp. 135–141, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. R. Abid, S. Guo, T. Minami et al., “Vascular endothelial growth factor activates PI3K/Akt/forkhead signaling in endothelial cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 294–300, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Carter, B. Miladinovic, A. A. Patel, L. Deland, S. Mastorides, and N. A. Patel, “Circulating long noncoding RNA GAS5 levels are correlated to prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” BBA Clinical, vol. 4, pp. 102–107, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus