Review Article

Far beyond Phagocytosis: Phagocyte-Derived Extracellular Traps Act Efficiently against Protozoan Parasites In Vitro and In Vivo

Figure 1

ETosis is not a parasite- nor a stage-specific cell death process (SEM analysis). (a) Eimeria bovis sporozoite-triggered bovine NETosis; (b) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (back arrows) induced NETosis (white arrows); (c) Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites entrapped by a delicate DNA fibre derived from bovine PMN; (d) Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite completely entrapped in filigree NET structures; (e) PMN-derived NETs (white arrow) after Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites encounter (black arrows); (f) Neospora caninum tachyzoites (black arrow) trapped in bovine NETs (white arrow); (g) monocyte-derived extracellular traps (METs) forming spread (white arrow) ETs entrapping Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites (black arrow); (h) Besnoitia besnoiti derived thick and thin METs.