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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7068287, 12 pages
Research Article

Differential Recruitment of Dendritic Cells Subsets to Lymph Nodes Correlates with a Protective or Permissive T-Cell Response during Leishmania (Viannia) Braziliensis or Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis Infection

1Laboratory of Pathology of Infectious Diseases (LIM-50), Medical School, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246903 Cerqueira César, SP, Brazil
2Laboratory of Immunology (LIM-60), Medical School, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246903 Cerqueira César, SP, Brazil
3Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, Department of Parasitology, Evandro Chagas Institute, Surveillance Secretary of Health, Ministry of Health, Rodovia BR-316 Km 7 s/n, 67030-000 Ananindeua, PA, Brazil
4Tropical Medicine Nucleus, Federal University of Pará, Avenida Generalíssimo Deodoro 92, 66055-240 Belém, PA, Brazil

Received 9 November 2015; Revised 22 January 2016; Accepted 16 February 2016

Academic Editor: Cesar Terrazas

Copyright © 2016 A. K. Carvalho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Leishmania (L.) amazonensis (La) and L. (V.) braziliensis (Lb) are responsible for a large clinical and immunopathological spectrum in human disease; while La may be responsible for anergic disease, Lb infection leads to cellular hypersensitivity. To better understand the dichotomy in the immune response caused by these Leishmania species, we evaluated subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocyte in draining lymph nodes during the course of La and Lb infection in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated a high involvement of DCs in La infection, which was characterized by the greater accumulation of Langerhans cells (LCs); conversely, Lb infection led to an increase in dermal DCs (dDCs) throughout the infection. Considering the T lymphocyte response, an increase of effector, activated, and memory CD4+ T-cells was observed in Lb infection. Interleukin- (IL-) 4- and IL-10-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were present in both La and Lb infection; however, interferon- (IFN-) γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were detected only in Lb infection. The results suggest that during Lb infection, the dDCs were the predominant subset of DCs that in turn was associated with the development of Th1 immune response; in contrast La infection was associated with a preferential accumulation of LCs and total blockage of the development of Th1 immune response.