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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7216912, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7216912
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhapontici Radix Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and Induction of HO-1 in Macrophages

Korean Medicine (KM) Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 70 Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu 41062, Republic of Korea

Received 17 March 2016; Accepted 29 June 2016

Academic Editor: Julio Galvez

Copyright © 2016 Yun Hee Jeong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rhapontici Radix (RR) has been used in traditional medicine in East Asia and has been shown to have various beneficial effects. However, its biological properties or mechanism on inflammation-related diseases is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhapontici Radix ethanol extract (RRE). The inhibitory effect of RRE on the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory-related proteins, and mRNAs in LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined by the Griess assay, ELISA, Western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment with RRE significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity. We also found that RRE strongly suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and induced HO-1 expression. It also prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by RRE. These findings suggest that RRE may operate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. Our results suggest that RRE has potential value as candidate to inflammatory therapeutic phytomedicine.