Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7678542, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7678542
Research Article

Lack of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Results in a Failure of the Innate Immune Response after Bacterial Meningitis

1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2Department of Neurology, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3Department of Urology, University Medicine Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany

Received 13 November 2015; Accepted 4 January 2016

Academic Editor: Dezheng Zhao

Copyright © 2016 Lea-Jessica Albrecht et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. B. Mook-Kanamori, M. Geldhoff, T. van der Poll, and D. van de Beek, “Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 557–591, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. van de Beek, J. de Gans, L. Spanjaard, M. Weisfelt, J. B. Reitsma, and M. Vermeulen, “Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 18, pp. 1849–1923, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. U. Koedel, M. Klein, and H.-W. Pfister, “New understandings on the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 217–223, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. M. Mariani and T. Kielian, “Microglia in infectious diseases of the central nervous system,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 448–461, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. W. Konat, T. Kielian, and I. Marriott, “The role of Toll-like receptors in CNS response to microbial challenge,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Scheller, A. Chalaris, D. Schmidt-Arras, and S. Rose-John, “The pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of the cytokine interleukin-6,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Molecular Cell Research, vol. 1813, no. 5, pp. 878–888, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. J. Van Wagoner and E. N. Benveniste, “Interleukin-6 expression and regulation in astrocytes,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 124–139, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Merres, J. Höss, L.-J. Albrecht et al., “Role of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in inflammation and mortality in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 205–218, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Rubio-Perez and J. M. Morillas-Ruiz, “A review: inflammatory process in Alzheimer's disease, role of cytokines,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 756357, 15 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Puimège, C. Libert, and F. Van Hauwermeiren, “Regulation and dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 285–300, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. P. O'Brien, D. E. Briles, A. J. Szalai, A.-H. Tu, I. Sanz, and M. H. Nahm, “Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor I is important for survival from Streptococcus pneumoniae infections,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 595–601, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Gerber, T. Böttcher, M. Hahn, A. Siemer, S. Bunkowski, and R. Nau, “Increased mortality and spatial memory deficits in TNF-α-deficient mice in ceftriaxone-treated experimental pneumococcal meningitis,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 133–138, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Tsao, W. W. Chang, C. C. Liu, and H. Y. Lei, “Development of hematogenous pneumococcal meningitis in adult mice: the role of TNF-alpha,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Tureen, “Effect of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cerebral oxygen uptake, cerebrospinal fluid lactate, and cerebral blood flow in the rabbit: role of nitric oxide,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1086–1091, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Bogdan, S. L. Leib, M. Bergeron, L. Chow, and M. G. Täuber, “Tumor necrosis factor-α contributes to apoptosis in hippocampal neurons during experimental group B streptococcal meningitis,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 693–697, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L.-O. Brandenburg, D. Varoga, N. Nicolaeva et al., “Role of glial cells in the functional expression of LL-37/rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide in meningitis,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1041–1054, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Rothe, W. Lesslauer, H. Lötscher et al., “Mice lacking the tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 are resistant to TNF-mediated toxicity but highly susceptible to infection by Listeria monocytogenes,” Nature, vol. 364, no. 6440, pp. 798–802, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Kopf, H. Baumann, G. Freer et al., “Impaired immune and acute-phase responses in interleukin-6-deficient mice,” Nature, vol. 368, no. 6469, pp. 339–342, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Oldekamp, S. Pscheidl, E. Kress et al., “Lack of formyl peptide receptor 1 and 2 leads to more severe inflammation and higher mortality in mice with of pneumococcal meningitis,” Immunology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 447–461, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Slowik, J. Merres, A. Elfgen et al., “Involvement of formyl peptide receptors in receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)—and amyloid beta 1–42-induced signal transduction in glial cells,” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 7, no. 1, article 55, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J . Merres, J. Hoss, L. J. Albrecht et al., “Role of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in inflammation and mortality in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 205–218, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Kettenmann, U.-K. Hanisch, M. Noda, and A. Verkhratsky, “Physiology of microglia,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 461–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L.-O. Brandenburg, J. Merres, L.-J. Albrecht, D. Varoga, and T. Pufe, “Antimicrobial peptides: multifunctional drugs for different applications,” Polymers, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 539–560, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. L. Galloo, K. J. Kim, M. Bernfield et al., “Identification of CRAMP, a cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expressed in the embryonic and adult mouse,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 20, pp. 13088–13093, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Perrier, F. Darakhshan, and E. Hajduch, “IL-1 receptor antagonist in metabolic diseases: Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde?” FEBS Letters, vol. 580, no. 27, pp. 6289–6294, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Gerber and R. Nau, “Mechanisms of injury in bacterial meningitis,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 312–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L.-O. Brandenburg, S. Jansen, L.-J. Albrecht et al., “CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce the expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in glial cells,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 255, no. 1-2, pp. 18–31, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. J. Braun, A. Slowik, S. L. Leib et al., “The formyl peptide receptor like-1 and scavenger receptor MARCO are involved in glial cell activation in bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 8, article 11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. W. Neal and P. Gasque, “How does the brain limit the severity of inflammation and tissue injury during bacterial meningitis?” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 370–385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Billiau and F. Vandekerckhove, “Cytokines and their interactions with other inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 559–573, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. K. Glass, K. Saijo, B. Winner, M. C. Marchetto, and F. H. Gage, “Mechanisms underlying inflammation in neurodegeneration,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 918–934, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. M. Ransohoff and M. A. Brown, “Innate immunity in the central nervous system,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1164–1171, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Z. Kronfol and D. G. Remick, “Cytokines and the brain: implications for clinical psychiatry,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 5, pp. 683–694, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. G. Brivet, F. M. Jacobs, and B. Mégarbane, “Cerebral output of cytokines in patients with pneumococcal meningitis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2721–2723, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Kollias, “TNF pathophysiology in murine models of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity,” Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 3–6, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. P. Garlet, C. R. B. Cardoso, A. P. Campanelli et al., “The dual role of p55 tumour necrosis factor-α receptor in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-induced experimental periodontitis: host protection and tissue destruction,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 128–138, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. S. Low, B. W. Lee, H. K. Yap et al., “Inflammatory response in bacterial meningitis: cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 55–59, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. A. Dalrymple, R. Slattery, D. M. Aud, M. Krishna, L. A. Lucian, and R. Murray, “Interleukin-6 is required for a protective immune response to systemic Escherichia coli infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 3231–3235, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Diao and M. Kohanawa, “Endogenous interleukin-6 plays a crucial protective role in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome via suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha production,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 3745–3748, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. A. Nowell, A. S. Williams, S. A. Carty et al., “Therapeutic targeting of IL-6 trans signaling counteracts STAT3 control of experimental inflammatory arthritis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 613–622, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Finsen and T. Owens, “Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation,” FEBS Letters, vol. 585, no. 23, pp. 3806–3812, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. W. Wang, Y. C. Chang, S. J. Chen et al., “TNFR1-JNK signaling is the shared pathway of neuroinflammation and neurovascular damage after LPS-sensitized hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 11, article 215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. C. D'Mello, T. Le, and M. G. Swain, “Cerebral microglia recruit monocytes into the brain in response to tumor necrosis factorα signaling during peripheral organ inflammation,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 2089–2102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Veroni, L. Gabriele, I. Canini et al., “Activation of TNF receptor 2 in microglia promotes induction of anti-inflammatory pathways,” Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. L. Leib, J. M. Clements, R. L. P. Lindberg et al., “Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and tumour necrosis factor α converting enzyme as adjuvant therapy in pneumococcal meningitis,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1734–1742, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Barichello, J. S. Generoso, L. R. Simoes et al., “Interleukin-1β receptor antagonism prevents cognitive impairment following experimental bacterial meningitis,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 253–261, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. L.-O. Brandenburg, S. Seyferth, C. J. Wruck et al., “Involvement of Phospholipase D 1 and 2 in the subcellular localization and activity of formyl-peptide-receptors in the human colonic cell line HT29,” Molecular Membrane Biology, vol. 26, no. 5–7, pp. 371–383, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L.-O. Brandenburg, S. Jansen, C. J. Wruck, R. Lucius, and T. Pufe, “Antimicrobial peptide rCRAMP induced glial cell activation through P2Y receptor signalling pathways,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1905–1913, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus