Mediators of Inflammation / 2016 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

Figure 1

Effects of propolis on mastitis pathogen-induced cell viability decreases and cell apoptosis in MAC-T cells. (a) MAC-T cells were treated with propolis and/or various mastitis pathogens, including proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α 25 ng/mL), bacterial cell wall components (LPS, 1 μg/mL; LTA, 10 μg/mL), and heat-killed mastitis strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, 107 particles/mL) with indicated concentrations of propolis for 24 h. The CCK-8 assay was performed to determine cell viability. and significantly different from untreated cells. and significantly different from mastitis pathogens-treated cells. (b) After being pretreated with or without Chinese propolis (15 μg/mL) for 1 h, MAC-T cells were challenged with various mastitis pathogens for 24 h. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. The data are expressed as the mean ± SD (). and .

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