Mediators of Inflammation / 2016 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

Figure 2

Effects of CP treatment on proinflammatory responses following mastitis pathogen challenges in MAC-T cells. Quantitative PCR analysis of inflammatory cytokine genes, IL-6 (a), IL-8 (b), and TNF-α (c), showing gene expressions after 6 h incubation of MAC-T cells with each different mastitis pathogen, including proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α 25 ng/mL), bacterial cell wall components (LPS, 1 μg/mL; LTA, 10 μg/mL), and heat-killed mastitis strains (E. coli and S. aureus, 107 particles/mL). Ct values of target genes were normalized to the value of β-actin and relative gene expressions in TNF-α control group were arbitrarily set to one. The data are shown as mean ± SD from three independent experiments and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with the Student-Newman-Keuls method. The means with different superscripts are significantly different ().

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