Mediators of Inflammation / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

Table 1

Classification, characterization, and affected CNS regions of relevant viruses causing infection in the human CNS.

Virus familySpecies nameGenome structureAffected CNS regions BBB or BCSFB

RetroviridaeHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [57] (+)ssRNAMeninges, cerebral cortex, white matter, brain stem, ependymaBBB

HerpesviridaeVaricella zoster virus (VZV) [58] dsDNAMeninges, brainstem, subependymal vesselsBBB
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) [59] dsDNACerebral cortex, white matter, ependyma, CP BBB/BCSFB
Human herpes virus-6 (HH-6) [60] dsDNAFront lobe, thalamus, white matter BBB
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) [61]dsDNACerebral cortexBBB
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) [62]dsDNAMeninges, spinal cord, peripheral nervesBBB

PicornaviridaeNonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) [63] (+)ssRNACP, cerebellumBBB/BCSFB
Poliovirus (PV) [64](+)ssRNABrain stemBBB
Human parechovirus (HPeV) [65] (+)ssRNAMeninges, ependyma, CPBBB/BCSFB

FlaviviridaeTick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) [66](+)ssRNACerebral cortexBBB
West Nile virus (WNV) [67] (+)ssRNACerebral cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellumBBB
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) [68] (+)ssRNAMeninges, cerebral cortex BBB

ParamyxoviridaeMeasles virus (MV) [69](−)ssRNAMeninges, cerebral cortexBBB
Mumps virus (MuV) [70](−)ssRNAMeninges, ependyma, CP BBB/BCSFB

RhabdoviridaeRabies virus (RV) [71] (−)ssRNAThalamus, hippocampus, brain stemBBB

PolyomaviridaeJohn Cunningham virus (JCV) [72]dsDNASubcortical white matterBBB

TogaviridaeChikungunya virus (CHIKV) [73](+)ssRNAWhite matter, CP, meningesBBB/BCSFB
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) [74](+)ssRNABrain stem, thalamus BBB

dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA; CP, choroid plexus; BBB, blood-brain barrier; BCSFB, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

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