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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 9303126, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9303126
Research Article

Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

1Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 Liberdade, 01504-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Received 18 February 2016; Revised 28 April 2016; Accepted 4 May 2016

Academic Editor: Helen C. Steel

Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo Silva Macedo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.