Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 1390458, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1390458
Research Article

Deregulation of Regulatory T Cells in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Rat Model

1Department of Infectious Diseases, Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China
2Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Hepatology, Hepatology Institute of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China
3Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruian City People’s Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Mingqin Lu; moc.361@6090qml

Received 14 April 2016; Revised 20 October 2016; Accepted 26 October 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Alex Kleinjan

Copyright © 2017 Shunlan Ni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. K. Sarin, A. Kumar, J. A. Almeida et al., “Acute-on-chronic liver failure: consensus recommendations of the Asian Pacific Association for the study of the liver (APASL),” Hepatology International, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 269–282, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Whitehouse and J. Wendon, “Acute liver failure,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 757–769, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Kakisaka, K. Kataoka, H. Kuroda, and Y. Takikawa, “Predictive formula for acute liver failure is useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure,” Hepatology Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 459–467, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Jalan and R. Williams, “Acute-on-chronic liver failure: pathophysiological basis of therapeutic options,” Blood Purification, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 252–261, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. A. Wlodzimirow, S. Eslami, A. Abu-Hanna, M. Nieuwoudt, and R. A. F. M. Chamuleau, “Systematic review: acute liver failure-one disease, more than 40 definitions,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1245–1256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Xue-Song, L. Cheng-Zhong, Z. Ying, and W. Mo-Bin, “Changes of Treg and Th17 cells balance in the development of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 12, article 43, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y.-H. Niu, D.-L. Yin, H.-L. Liu et al., “Restoring the Treg cell to Th17 cell ratio may alleviate HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. 4146–4154, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X.-S. Liang, C.-Z. Li, Y. Zhou, W. Yin, Y.-Y. Liu, and W.-H. Fan, “Changes in circulating Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and interleukin-17-producing T helper cells during HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 26, pp. 8558–8571, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. E. Wasmuth, D. Kunz, E. Yagmur et al., “Patients with acute on chronic liver failure display ‘sepsis-like’ immune paralysis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 195–201, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Kryczek, S. Wei, L. Zou et al., “Cutting edge: Th17 and regulatory T cell dynamics and the regulation by IL-2 in the tumor microenvironment,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 11, pp. 6730–6733, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Annunziato, L. Cosmi, F. Liotta, E. Maggi, and S. Romagnani, “The phenotype of human Th17 cells and their precursors, the cytokines that mediate their differentiation and the role of Th17 cells in inflammation,” International Immunology, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1361–1368, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. T. Weaver and R. D. Hatton, “Interplay between the TH 17 and TReg cell lineages: a (co-)evolutionary perspective,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 883–889, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Li, L. Wang, S. Wang et al., “The treg/Th17 imbalance in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 298–303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Jiang, X. Wu, H. Zhu, Y. Xie, S. Tang, and Y. Jiang, “FOXP3+Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in lung tissues of mice with asthma,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 4158–4163, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. D. Fontenot, M. A. Gavin, and A. Y. Rudensky, “Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells,” Nature Immunology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 330–336, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Sakaguchi, T. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, and M. Ono, “Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance,” Cell, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 775–787, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Oldenhove, M. de Heusch, G. Urbain-Vansanten et al., “CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T helper cell type 1 responses to foreign antigens induced by mature dendritic cells in vivo,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 259–266, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. R. Walker, D. J. Kasprowicz, V. H. Gersuk et al., “Induction of FoxP3 and acquisition of T regulatory activity by stimulated human CD4+CD25- T cells,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1437–1443, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. E. Harrington, R. D. Hatton, P. R. Mangan et al., “Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages,” Nature Immunology, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1123–1132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Knight, R. Lim, G. C. Yeoh, and J. K. Olynyk, “Interferon-γ exacerbates liver damage, the hepatic progenitor cell response and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic liver injury,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 826–833, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G.-L. Zhang, D.-Y. Xie, B.-L. Lin et al., “Imbalance of interleukin-17-producing CD4 T cells/regulatory T cells axis occurs in remission stage of patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia), vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 513–521, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Jalan, P. Gines, J. C. Olson et al., “Acute-on chronic liver failure,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1336–1348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Zhai, L. Zhang, S. Dang et al., “The ratio of Th-17 to treg cells is associated with survival of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure,” Viral Immunology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 303–310, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. K. Kolls and A. Lindén, “Interleukin-17 family members and inflammation,” Immunity, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 467–476, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. I. Ivanov, B. S. McKenzie, L. Zhou et al., “The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells,” Cell, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1121–1133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Niu, H. Liu, D. Yin et al., “The balance between intrahepatic IL-17+ T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells plays an important role in HBV-related end-stage liver disease,” BMC Immunology, vol. 12, article 47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G.-L. Zhang, D.-Y. Xie, Y.-N. Ye et al., “High level of IL-27 positively correlated with Th17 cells may indicate liver injury in patients infected with HBV,” Liver International, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 266–273, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X.-F. Sun, L. Gu, W.-S. Deng, and Q. Xu, “Impaired balance of T helper 17/T regulatory cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2062–2070, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D.-M. Kuang, Q. Zhao, C. Peng et al., “Activated monocytes in peritumoral stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma foster immune privilege and disease progression through PD-L1,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 6, pp. 1327–1337, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Lemmers, C. Moreno, T. Gustot et al., “The interleukin-17 pathway is involved in human alcoholic liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 646–657, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Z. Zou, B. Li, D. Xu et al., “Imbalanced intrahepatic cytokine expression of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10 in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure associated with hepatitis B virus infection,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 182–190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Nishimura and A. Ohta, “A critical role for antigen-specific Th1 cells in acute liver injury in mice,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 162, no. 11, pp. 6503–6509, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Z.-J. Su, X.-P. Yu, R.-Y. Guo et al., “Changes in the balance between Treg and Th17 cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 437–444, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. N. Stoop, R. G. Van Der Molen, C. C. Baan et al., “Regulatory T cells contribute to the impaired immune response in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 771–778, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Yang, P. Yi, L. Wei et al., “Phenotypes and clinical significance of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF),” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, article 193, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Yang, A. Liu, Q. Xie et al., “Association of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells with chronic activity and viral clearance in patients with hepatitis B,” International Immunology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. G. Antoniades, J. Wendon, and D. Vergani, “Paralysed monocytes in acute on chronic liver disease,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 163–165, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus