Activated Platelets Induce an Anti-Inflammatory Response of Monocytes/Macrophages through Cross-Regulation of PGE2 and Cytokines
Cross-regulation of PGE2 and TNFα through an induction of IL-10 in murine macrophages by platelet derived PGE2. (a) Murine BMDM were incubated alone, with untreated platelets, or with collagen-activated platelets for 3 hours. (b), (c) Murine BMDM were incubated with untreated platelets with or without PGE2 (1 μM) for 3 hours. (d) Murine platelets were incubated with or without collagen (1 μg/ml) for 30 minutes. (e), (f) BMDM from wild-type mice (b) or COX-1-deficient mice (c) were coincubated with BAPTA-AM-inactivated platelets (30 μM) or with collagen-activated platelets isolated from wild-type and COX-1-deficient mice for 3 hours. The concentrations of PGE2 in the medium were determined by LC-MS/MS. IL-10 levels and TNFα levels in the medium were determined by ELISA. Data are presented as mean ± SEM from 4 experiments. One-way ANOVA/Bonferroni , , , .