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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3264217, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3264217
Review Article

Advances in Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review

1Dermatology Service, Hospital do Meixoeiro and University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain
2Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain
3Mycology Service, Hospital Manuel Gea González, Mexico City, Mexico
4Health Department, Xunta Galicia, Vigo, Spain
5Galician Healthcare Service, Vigo, Spain
6Dermatology Service, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
7Dermatology Service, Venus Clinic, Tirana, Albania
8Dermatology Service, Military Medical Unit, University Trauma Hospital, Tirana, Albania

Correspondence should be addressed to Carmen RodrĂ­guez-Cerdeira; se.ogivu@recdorc

Received 16 December 2016; Revised 21 March 2017; Accepted 3 April 2017; Published 1 August 2017

Academic Editor: Rajesh Singh

Copyright © 2017 Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Melanomas are tumors originating from melanocytes and tend to show early metastasis secondary to the loss of cellular adhesion in the primary tumor, resulting in high mortality rates. Cancer-specific active immunotherapy is an experimental form of treatment that stimulates the immune system to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Current experimental approaches in immunotherapy include vaccines, biochemotherapy, and the transfer of adoptive T cells and dendritic cells. Several types of vaccines, including peptide, viral, and dendritic cell vaccines, are currently under investigation for the treatment of melanoma. These treatments have the same goal as drugs that are already used to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in order to destroy tumor cells; however, immunotherapies aim to selectively attack the tumor cells of each patient. In this comprehensive review, we describe recent advancements in the development of immunotherapies for melanoma, with a specific focus on the identification of neoantigens for the prediction of their elicited immune responses. This review is expected to provide important insights into the future of immunotherapy for melanoma.