Table 2: Serum levels of adipokines and TRAIL according to abdominal obesity categories.

ParametersWaist circumference (cm)
≤79.9 []80–87.9 []≥88 []

IL-8 (pg/mL)2.7 ± 0.93.3 ± 0.93.4 ± 1.9NS
TNF-α (pg/mL)1.7 (1.3–2.4)1.9 (1.2–2.6)2.0 (1.4–2.7)NS
IL-6 (pg/mL)0.4 (0.3–0.8)0.5 (0.3–0.7)1.0 (0.4–1.7)a,b<0.01
MCP-1 (pg/mL)207 (147–306)193 (158–276)213 (166–278)NS
Resistin (pg/mL)11,051 ± 462813,398 ± 7721a13,540 ± 5476a<0.05
Adiponectin (μg/mL)80 (49–170)69 (37–158)a43 (22–57)a,b<0.01
HGF (pg/mL)215 (108–318)306 (187–483)377 (272–571)a,b<0.01
NGF (pg/mL)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.5)1.2 (0.8–1.6)NS
Adipsin (μg/mL)3.7 (3.1–4.5)3.9 (3.3–4.8)4.6 (4.8–6.0)a,b<0.01
Leptin (ng/mL)6 (4–13)14 (6–22)a29 (13–39)a,b<0.01
Lipocalin-2/ngal (ng/mL)135 ± 48157 ± 82160 ± 60a<0.05
PAI-1 total (ng/mL)46 ± 2253 ± 2261 ± 22a<0.01
TRAIL100 ± 20110 ± 23a110 ± 25NS

Data presented are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for normal continuous variables; median (interquartile range) for nonnormal continuous variables. ANOVA (post hoc test: Tukey) or Kruskall-Wallis (post hoc test: Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test followed by Bonferroni correction). versus normal; versus overweight. IL: interleukin; PAI-1 total: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor; ngal: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NGF: nerve growth factor.