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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5649214, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5649214
Research Article

Dengue Virus Induces NK Cell Activation through TRAIL Expression during Infection

1Viral Immunology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Celular Microbiology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Plantadores de Cana Hospital, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
4Medical Clinic Department, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo; rb.zurcoif.coi@sednanizle

Received 15 February 2017; Revised 29 June 2017; Accepted 9 July 2017; Published 5 September 2017

Academic Editor: Stefanie B. Flohé

Copyright © 2017 Mariana Gandini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dengue is an acute febrile illness with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms ranging from mild to severe forms characterized by plasma leakage that can be fatal. NK cells are one of the main effectors in early infection and may play an important role in dengue pathogenesis. We investigated NK cell involvement during dengue infection. A higher frequency of NK cell subsets and TRAIL+NK cells was found in mild DF cases when compared to that in severe cases or healthy donors. NK activation markers such as CD107a and TLR3 were upregulated in patients’ cells compared to those in healthy donors. In addition, IL12 related to NK cell activation were upregulated in mild DF cases. In vitro PBMC culture models show that DENV-stimulated and IFNα-stimulated NK cells were able to express TRAIL, suggesting an indirect activation of cells, regarding TRAIL expression. Type I IFN receptor blockage on DENV-stimulated PBMCs showed TRAIL expression on NK cells is partially IFNα dependent. In addition, during PBMC stimulation, TRAIL expression on NK cells was inversely correlated with DENV-positive monocytes. Therefore, we observed DENV-induced activation of NK cell populations. A higher activation of NK cells would promote limited viral spread, resulting in decreased inflammatory response, contributing to protection against dengue severity.