Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6209865, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6209865
Research Article

Development and Characterisation of a Novel NF-κB Reporter Cell Line for Investigation of Neuroinflammation

1Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
2School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
3Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Darius Widera

Received 22 March 2017; Accepted 19 June 2017; Published 16 July 2017

Academic Editor: Soh Yamazaki

Copyright © 2017 Marie-Theres Zeuner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Sen and D. Baltimore, “Multiple nuclear factors interact with the immunoglobulin enhancer sequences,” Cell, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 705–716, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. U. Siebenlist, G. Franzoso, and K. Brown, “Structure, regulation and function of NF-kappa B,” Annual Review of Cell Biology, vol. 10, pp. 405–455, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Lieb, C. Kaltschmidt, B. Kaltschmidt et al., “Interleukin-1 beta uses common and distinct signaling pathways for induction of the interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha genes in the human astrocytoma cell line U373,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 66, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  4. P. Viatour, M. P. Merville, V. Bours, and A. Chariot, “Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Karin and Y. Ben-Neriah, “Phosphorylation meets ubiquitination: the control of NF-[kappa]B activity,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 18, pp. 621–663, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. D. Jacobs and S. C. Harrison, “Structure of an IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex,” Cell, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 749–758, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. R. Brasier, “The NF-kappaB regulatory network,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 111–130, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. J. Barnes and M. Karin, “Nuclear factor-kappaB: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 15, pp. 1066–1071, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Lawrence, “The nuclear factor NF-kappaB pathway in inflammation,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, vol. 1, no. 6, article a001651, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Schreiber, S. Nikolaus, and J. Hampe, “Activation of nuclear factor kappa B inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 477–484, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. N. Charokopos, N. Apostolopoulos, M. Kalapodi, M. Leotsinidis, N. Karamanos, and A. Mouzaki, “Bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and NF-kappaB,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 867–883, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. E. Gambuzza, V. Sofo, F. M. Salmeri, L. Soraci, S. Marino, and P. Bramanti, “Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer’s disease: a therapeutic perspective,” CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1542–1558, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. N. Gan, L. Yang, A. Omran et al., “Myoloid-related protein 8, an endogenous ligand of toll-like receptor 4, is involved in epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy via activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in astrocytes,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 337–351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Dolcet, D. Llobet, J. Pallares, and X. Matias-Guiu, “NF-kB in development and progression of human cancer,” Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology, vol. 446, no. 5, pp. 475–482, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. C. Guttridge, C. Albanese, J. Y. Reuther, R. G. Pestell, and A. S. Baldwin Jr., “NF-kappaB controls cell growth and differentiation through transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 5785–5799, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. B. Kaltschmidt, C. Kaltschmidt, S. P. Hehner, W. Droge, and M. L. Schmitz, “Repression of NF-kappaB impairs HeLa cell proliferation by functional interference with cell cycle checkpoint regulators,” Oncogene, vol. 18, no. 21, pp. 3213–3225, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Schwamborn, A. Lindecke, M. Elvers et al., “Microarray analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha induced gene expression in U373 human glioblastoma cells,” BMC Genomics, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 46, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Kaus, D. Widera, S. Kassmer et al., “Neural stem cells adopt tumorigenic properties by constitutively activated NF-kappaB and subsequent VEGF up-regulation,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 999–1015, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Y. Wang, M. W. Mayo, and A. S. Baldwin Jr., “TNF- and cancer therapy-induced apoptosis: potentiation by inhibition of NF-kappaB,” Science (New York, NY), vol. 274, no. 5288, pp. 784–787, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Ponten and B. Westermark, “Properties of human malignant glioma cells in vitro,” Medical Biology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 184–193, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  21. B. Westermark, J. Ponten, and R. Hugosson, “Determinants for the establishment of permanent tissue culture lines from human gliomas,” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica Section A, Pathology, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 791–805, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Ponten and E. H. Macintyre, “Long term culture of normal and neoplastic human glia,” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 465–486, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  23. L. Qiang, Y. Yang, Y. J. Ma et al., “Isolation and characterization of cancer stem like cells in human glioblastoma cell lines,” Cancer Letters, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. T. Yeung, N. S. Bryce, S. Adams et al., “p38 MAPK inhibitors attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the invasiveness of human U251 glioblastoma cells,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 35–44, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Muller, J. F. Greiner, M. Zeuner et al., “1,8-Cineole potentiates IRF3-mediated antiviral response in human stem cells and in an ex vivo model of rhinosinusitis,” Clinical Science (London, England: 1979), vol. 130, no. 15, pp. 1339–1352, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. T. Zeuner, C. L. Kruger, K. Volk et al., “Biased signalling is an essential feature of TLR4 in glioma cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1863, no. 12, pp. 3084–3095, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Ma, S. Chen, X. Wang, M. Ba, H. Yang, and G. Lu, “Short-term interleukin-1(beta) increases the release of secreted APP(alpha) via MEK1/2-dependent and JNK-dependent alpha-secretase cleavage in neuroglioma U251 cells,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 683–692, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Chakraborty, L. Li, H. Tang et al., “Cytoplasmic TRADD confers a worse prognosis in glioblastoma,” Neoplasia (New York, NY), vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 888–897, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise et al., “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nature Methods, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 676–682, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Bachelerie, J. Alcami, F. Arenzana-Seisdedos, and J. L. Virelizier, “HIV enhancer activity perpetuated by NF-kappa B induction on infection of monocytes,” Nature, vol. 350, no. 6320, pp. 709–712, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R. Ma, J. Zhao, H. C. Du, S. Tian, and L. W. Li, “Removing endotoxin from plasmid samples by Triton X-114 isothermal extraction,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 424, no. 2, pp. 124–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. G. Reed-Geaghan, J. C. Savage, A. G. Hise, and G. E. Landreth, “CD14 and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar A{beta}-stimulated microglial activation,” The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 38, pp. 11982–11992, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. A. Majde, “Microbial cell-wall contaminants in peptides: a potential source of physiological artifacts,” Peptides, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 629–632, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Townsend, G. M. Shankar, T. Mehta, D. M. Walsh, and D. J. Selkoe, “Effects of secreted oligomers of amyloid beta-protein on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: a potent role for trimers,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 572, Part 2, pp. 477–492, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. E. Cahill, R. A. Morshed, and B. Yamini, “Nuclear factor-kappaB in glioblastoma: insights into regulators and targeted therapy,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 329–339, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “NF-kappaB, the first quarter-century: remarkable progress and outstanding questions,” Genes & Development, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 203–234, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Kaltschmidt, D. Widera, and C. Kaltschmidt, “Signaling via NF-kappaB in the nervous system,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1745, no. 3, pp. 287–299, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Prelich, “Gene overexpression: uses, mechanisms, and interpretation,” Genetics, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 841–854, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. M. Ezzat, M. El Gaafary, A. M. El Sayed et al., “The cardenolide glycoside acovenoside a affords protective activity in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 358, no. 2, pp. 262–270, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. M. Chaturvedi, B. Sung, V. R. Yadav, R. Kannappan, and B. B. Aggarwal, “NF-kappaB addiction and its role in cancer: ‘one size does not fit all’,” Oncogene, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1615–1630, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  41. Q. Lin, M. Li, D. Fang, J. Fang, and S. B. Su, “The essential roles of toll-like receptor signaling pathways in sterile inflammatory diseases,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1422–1432, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. P. Hodgkinson, K. Patel, and S. Ye, “Functional toll-like receptor 4 mutations modulate the response to fibrinogen,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 301–307, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  43. H. Yang, H. S. Hreggvidsdottir, K. Palmblad et al., “A critical cysteine is required for HMGB1 binding to toll-like receptor 4 and activation of macrophage cytokine release,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 26, pp. 11942–11947, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Fan, Y. Li, R. M. Levy et al., “Hemorrhagic shock induces NAD(P)H oxidase activation in neutrophils: role of HMGB1-TLR4 signaling,” Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950), vol. 178, no. 10, pp. 6573–6580, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. F. Tsan and B. Gao, “Pathogen-associated molecular pattern contamination as putative endogenous ligands of toll-like receptors,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 6–14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. X. Wang, L. Jia, X. Jin et al., “NF-kappaB inhibitor reverses temozolomide resistance in human glioma TR/U251 cells,” Oncology Letters, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2586–2590, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus