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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 7517350, 9 pages
Review Article

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Its Potential Application for Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration

1Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia
2Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia

Correspondence should be addressed to Craig R. Wright; ua.ude.nikaed@thgirw.giarc

Received 16 August 2017; Accepted 10 October 2017; Published 7 December 2017

Academic Editor: Shin-ichi Yokota

Copyright © 2017 Craig R. Wright et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was originally discovered in the context of hematopoiesis. However, the identification of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) being expressed outside the hematopoietic system has revealed wider roles for G-CSF, particularly in tissue repair and regeneration. Skeletal muscle damage, including that following strenuous exercise, induces an elevation in plasma G-CSF, implicating it as a potential mediator of skeletal muscle repair. This has been supported by preclinical studies and clinical trials investigating G-CSF as a potential therapeutic agent in relevant disease states. This review focuses on the growing literature associated with G-CSF and G-CSFR in skeletal muscle under healthy and disease conditions and highlights the current controversies.