Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment
A 250 μg dose of TcES best recruits MDSCs and AAMs. Frequencies (a) and numbers (c) of MDSCs recruited to the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with different doses of TcES or control treatments (SSS, BSA). Frequencies (b) and numbers (d) of F4/80+ PD-L1+ PD-L2+ AAMs. Cell numbers were calculated from a gate of 10000 total cells. The data shown are representative of 2 independent experiments. Means and SEM were calculated for groups of . The statistical significance between groups was determined by two-tailed Student’s t-test, , , and . SSS, sterile saline solution; BSA, bovine serum albumin; TcES, Taenia crassiceps secreted/excreted; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cells; AAMs, alternatively activated macrophages.
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