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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 9074601, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9074601
Review Article

The Role of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Inflammatory Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract

1Department of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland
3Gastroenterology and Hepatology Clinic, The University Hospital, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Tomasz Brzozowski; lp.ude.rk-fyc@ozozrbpm

Received 1 July 2016; Accepted 26 January 2017; Published 21 February 2017

Academic Editor: Andrea E. Errasti

Copyright © 2017 Jan Bilski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events. Diminished activity of IAP could increase the risk of disease through changes in the microbiome, intestinal inflammation, and intestinal permeability. Exogenous IAP exerts a protective effect against intestinal and systemic inflammation in a variety of diseases and represents a potential therapeutic agent in diseases driven by gut barrier dysfunction such as IBD. The intestinal protective mechanisms are impaired in IBD patients due to lower synthesis and activity of endogenous IAP, but the pathomechanism of this enzyme deficiency remains unclear. IAP has been safely administered to humans and the human recombinant form of IAP has been developed. This review was designed to provide an update in recent research on the involvement of IAP in intestinal inflammatory processes with focus on IBD in experimental animal models and human patients.