Figure 4: Summary of intracellular TLR4 signalling in platelets. Although the individual steps of the MyD88-dependent pathway have been observed, signalling in its entirety downstream of TLR4 has not been confirmed. Similar to nucleated cells, the proteins required for signalling through MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways are present in platelets but it is currently unclear how they mediate their effects. Signalling downstream of MyD88 can also be mediated by cGKI. The presences of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1, JNK, MAPK, IκBα, NF-κB, TRIF, TRAF3, TBK1, IKKε, and IRF3 have all been confirmed by immunoblot analysis [2, 25]. Question marks (?) denote aspects of the pathway that have not been confirmed.