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Figure 4: Decreased esRAGE and cRAGE : esRAGE ratio with high HOMA-IR or AD. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting measures of glucose and insulin, and participants were stratified by the median HOMA-IR (1.7 AU). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Sample sizes for the stratifications are as follows: low HOMA-IR, NC (), low HOMA-IR, AD (), high HOMA-IR, NC (), and high HOMA-IR, AD (). value < 0.01 across metabolic factor within NC group; value < 0.05 across groups within metabolic factor; value < 0.01 across groups within metabolic factor.