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Figure 5: Individuals with high insulin concurrent with AD display attenuated cRAGE : esRAGE. Serum insulin was measured in mU/L following an overnight fast, and participants were stratified by the calculated median (6.83 mU/L). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Sample sizes for the stratifications are as follows: low insulin, NC (), low insulin, AD (), high insulin, NC (), and high insulin, AD (). value < 0.05 across metabolic factor within NC group; value < 0.01 across groups within metabolic factor.