Figure 5: The TNF-α synthesis inhibitor thalidomide restored paclitaxel-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory. Representative swimming paths (a) on the 12th day after vehicle, paclitaxel, thalidomide, and paclitaxel plus thalidomide treatment. Summary data showing the escape latency for finding the platform (b) and the number of crossings over the platform (c) during a series of testing in the group of rats receiving vehicle, paclitaxel, and paclitaxel plus thalidomide. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. compared with the vehicle group. PTX: paclitaxel; THD: thalidomide.