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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 6148351, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6148351
Research Article

Calophyllum brasiliense Modulates the Immune Response and Promotes Leishmania amazonensis Intracellular Death

1Graduate Program in Bioscience and Physiopathology, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, The State University of Maringá, Colombo Avenue 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
2Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, The State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
3Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to I. G. Demarchi; rb.moc.oohay@odrahlag_leb

Received 19 October 2017; Accepted 18 December 2017; Published 13 February 2018

Academic Editor: Elaine Hatanaka

Copyright © 2018 L. Domeneghetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Calophyllum brasiliense is a plant from the Brazilian rain forests and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including leishmaniasis. This infectious disease depends on the Leishmania sp. and the host immune response. C. brasiliense antileishmanial activity is well known, but the effects on immune response remain to be investigated. This study showed the leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory effects of a 30 μg/mL of hydroalcoholic extract of C. brasiliense in murine macrophages before and after Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection. The semiquantitative cytokine RNA expression was determined by RT-PCR and the anti-Leishmania activity was measured by infection index (IF). Hydroalcoholic extract of C. brasiliense reduced more than 95% of IF when used before and after Leishmania infection, with 3 and 24 h of treatment (). C. brasiliense inhibited or reduced significantly () the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-10 mRNA expression. The antileishmanial and anti-inflammatory effects showed the potential of C. brasiliense as an alternative therapy for leishmaniasis and it must be investigated.