Research Article

Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux

Figure 1

CD137 signaling activation induced calcification and autophagy in ApoE−/− mice. (a, b) Von Kossa staining of calcification region and immunohistochemistry staining of Beclin1, LC3B, and p62 in the aorta of ApoE−/− mice. (c, d) The expression of LC3, p62, and calcification-associated proteins (BMP2, RUNX2) in the aorta of ApoE−/− mice was detected by Western blot. (e) Transmission electron microscopy was used to trace autophagosomes in aortic plaque of ApoE−/− mice (red arrow: autophagosomes; black arrow: calcium deposition). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. refers to ; refers to .