Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux
CD137 signaling induced VSMC autophagy. (a) Primary mouse aortic VSMCs were stimulated by recombinant protein of agonist-CD137 (10 μg/ml) for different concentrations and time. Western blot was applied to measure the expression of LC3B after treatment. (b) VSMCs were treated with CQ (10 μmol/L) 15 min before agonist-CD137 treatment for 6 h followed by protein extraction for Western blot analyses of p62 and LC3B. (c) Image showing LC3B staining in each group of VSMCs infected with mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus for 6 h. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. refers to ; refers to .