Mediators of Inflammation / 2019 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Repurposing of the Nootropic Drug Vinpocetine as an Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Evidence in a Mouse Model of Superoxide Anion-Triggered Inflammation

Figure 2

KO2-induced hyperalgesia (mechanical and thermal) and paw edema are reduced by vinpocetine. Mechanical hyperalgesia (a), thermal hyperalgesia (b), and paw edema (c) were evaluated 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 7 h after intraplantar injection of KO2 (30 μg/paw). Mechanical hyperalgesia is presented as Δ withdrawal threshold (in grams), and thermal hyperalgesia is presented as Δ withdrawal threshold (in seconds), both of which were calculated by subtracting the mean measurements at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 7 h after KO2 stimulus from the baseline mean measurements (before stimulus) ( vs. saline, vs. vehicle (0 mg/kg) group, vs 10 mg/kg; two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s posttest; Δ mean ± SEM).
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