Repurposing of the Nootropic Drug Vinpocetine as an Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Evidence in a Mouse Model of Superoxide Anion-Triggered Inflammation
Vinpocetine normalizes total antioxidant capacity and reduces superoxide anion production induced by KO2. Total antioxidant capacity was quantified using FRAP (a) and ABTS (b) assays. Production of superoxide anion was determined by NBT assay (c). RT-qPCR was used to determine the gp91phox (d), Nrf2 (e), and Ho-1 (f) mRNA expression ( vs. saline group; vs. vehicle (0 mg/kg) group, one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s posttest; mean ± SEM).