Repurposing of the Nootropic Drug Vinpocetine as an Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Evidence in a Mouse Model of Superoxide Anion-Triggered Inflammation
Vinpocetine decreases superoxide anion-induced IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β production and NF-κB activation. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-33 (a), TNF-α (b), and IL-1β (c) were assayed by ELISA. The activation of NF-κB (d) was assessed by western blot by measuring the protein levels of IκBα (NF-κB inhibitor). Hind paw skin was dissected three hours after intraplantar injection of KO2 (30 μg/paw) ( vs. saline group; vs. vehicle (0 mg/kg) group, one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s posttest; mean ± SEM).