Research Article

Combined Exposure of Activated Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Nondigestible Oligosaccharides and CpG-ODN Suppresses Th2-Associated CCL22 Release While Enhancing Galectin-9, TGFβ, and Th1 Polarization

Figure 2

Combined IFNγ and TNFα exposure with or without IL1α enhances the release of Th2-driving cytokines and chemokines by IEC. HT29 cells were cultured in 24-well solid phase plates and preincubated with medium, IFNγ, TNFα, or IL1α (all 10 ng/mL) alone or in combinations for 6 h. Subsequently, the cells were washed and reexposed to medium, after which (a) IL25, (b) IL33, (c) CCL20, (d) CCL22, (e) TGFβ, and (f) galectin-9 were measured in the supernatants after 24 h; . One-way ANOVA ( value interaction for all mediators <0.01), post hoc test Bonferroni; ; . Ticked line represents the limit of detection (LOD), which is the lowest analyte concentration that can reliably be distinguished from the blank value without consideration of precision and accuracy. OOR> = Out-Of-Range above standard curve.