Research Article

Combined Exposure of Activated Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Nondigestible Oligosaccharides and CpG-ODN Suppresses Th2-Associated CCL22 Release While Enhancing Galectin-9, TGFβ, and Th1 Polarization

Figure 4

scGOS/lcFOS±CpG-ODN exposure of IFNγ/TNFα/IL1α-activated IEC increases CCL20, TGFβ, and galectin-9 while decreasing CCL22 in IEC-DC cocultures. After 48 hours of coculture of HT29 cells and imDC, (a) CCL20, (b) CCL22, and (d) galectin-9 were measured in the supernatants. After 24 hours of coculture, (c) TGFβ was measured in the supernatant. Legend: exposure to medium (white bars; 0), CpG-ODN (light grey bars; CpG), scGOS/lcFOS (dark grey bars; GF), or CpG-ODN+scGOS/lcFOS (black bars; CpG+GF); . One-way ANOVA on normalized data, post hoc test Tukey; ; ; and .