Advanced Glycation End Products Induce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Foam Cell Formation and Transdifferentiate to a Macrophage-Like State
Compared with control patients, there is significant plaque enlargement and macrophage-like smooth muscle cells in the blood vessels of diabetic-amputated patients. (a) HE station and fluorescence statin show CD68 staining (red), ACTA2 (green), and DAPI (blue) from diabetic foot amputation or accident foot amputation. (b) Analysis of colocalization area of CD68 and ACTA2 shows orange in the pictures. (c) Comparison of plaque area in diabetic patients and control patients. (d) Comparison of colocalization of CD68 and ACTA2/ACTA2 area. (e) The expression of RAGE in the plaque. The averages of three serial cross-sections were used as single data points. compared with the control group.
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