Advanced Glycation End Products Induce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Foam Cell Formation and Transdifferentiate to a Macrophage-Like State
CML promotes phenotypic transformation in VSMC to a macrophage-like state. Primary VSMCs were incubated for 72 hours with indicated concentrations of oxLDL or prestimulated by CML. (a) Fluorescence photomicrographs show CD68 staining (red), ACTA2 (green), and DAPI (blue) in different groups. Magnification ×400. (b) Representative mRNA levels of macrophage phenotype and VSMC phenotype. Results are representative of 3 experiments with similar results. . (c) Representative western blot images of ACTA2 and CD68. Results are representative of 3 experiments with similar results. .
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