Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediated Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Foam Cell Formation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Src and Sirt1/3 Pathway
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial superoxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). After treating with doses of oxLDL (12.5, 25, and 50 μg) for 48 hours, the lipid accumulation, ROS, and mitochondrial superoxide in VSMCs were measured, with the untreated group serving as a control reference (Con). (a) Nile Red (orange) was used to stain the lipid, and the concentration of lipoprotein was measured. (b) DCFH-DA-labelled (green) ROS and density of ROS production were detected. (c) MitoSOX-labelled (red) mitochondrial superoxide and level of superoxide were calculated. ( per group, results were expressed as ; and , as compared with the Con group).