The Dopamine D1 Receptor Attenuates Titanium Particle-Induced Inhibition of Osteogenesis by Activating the Wnt Signaling Pathway
D1R upregulation attenuates titanium particle-induced osteogenic inhibition by activating the Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. (a) Representative images of western blots probed with antibodies against OSX and Runx2 in the presence of a Wnt pathway inhibitor (icg-001). (b-c) Quantification of OSX and Runx2 protein levels. per group. NS: Not statistically significant, , , vs. titanium particle inducer group (without treatment with D1R agonists and/or icg-001). (d) Representative images of ALP and ARS staining in vitro. (e-f) Quantitative analysis of ALP activity and bone mineralization in BMSC cells in each group. Note: per group; , compared with the titanium particle inducer group (without treatment with D1R agonists and/or icg-001).