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Multiprocessor Scheduling of Sensor Transactions for Real-Time Data Quality Maintenance
In cyber-physical systems, sensor transactions should be effectively scheduled to maintain the temporal validity of real-time data objects. Previous studies on sensor transaction scheduling mainly focus on uniprocessor systems. In this paper, we study the problem of data quality-based scheduling of sensor transactions on multiprocessor platforms. The data quality is defined to describe the validity degree of real-time data objects. Two methods, named the Partitioned Scheduling for Quality Maximization (P-QM) and the improved P-QM scheduling (IP-QM), are proposed. P-QM maximizes the data quality by judiciously determining the preallocated computation time of each sensor transaction and assigns the transactions to different processors. IP-QM improves the data quality obtained from P-QM by adaptively executing transaction instances on each processor based on the current status of the system. It is demonstrated through experiments that IP-QM can provide higher data quality than P-QM under different system workloads.
An Intrusion Detection Scheme Based on Repeated Game in Smart Home
Smart Home brings a new people-oriented home life experience. However, the edge devices in this system are facing severe threats such as data security and equipment safety. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes an intrusion detection scheme based on repeated game. We first use the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) algorithm to classify edge devices and equip the intrusion detection system to cluster heads. Secondly, we use the regret minimization algorithm to determine the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium of the one-order game and then take a severe punishment strategy to domesticate malicious attackers. Thirdly, the intrusion detection system can detect malicious attackers by reduction of payoff. Finally, the detailed experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the loss of attacked intrusion detection system and then achieve the purpose of defending against the attacker.
A Lightweight Location-Aware Fog Framework (LAFF) for QoS in Internet of Things Paradigm
Mobile Positioning Techniques and Systems: A Comprehensive Review
The recent developments in mobile positioning technologies and the increasing demands of ubiquitous computing have significantly contributed to sophisticated positioning applications and services. Position information represents a core element in the human-centred activities, assisting in visualising complex environments effectively and providing a representational coordinate for localisation, tracking, and navigation purposes. The emergence of smartphones has accelerated the development of cutting-edge positioning-based systems since they are contained to have more processing, memory, and battery power. Similarly, mobile devices are now equipped with new sensory capabilities, wireless communications, and localisation technologies. This has quadrupled towards new advances on positioning techniques, enhancing the existing ones and brought more value to positioning-based systems. Research studies in positioning techniques have progressed in different directions, and no work has categorised and assessed the various advancements in this area. Accuracy and precision are the two challenging aspects that are crucial to the proper functioning of a positioning system. In practice, there is not a single positioning technique that could be appropriate for different situations. Most of the survey papers have focussed on carrying out their review on conventional positioning techniques. The common positioning technique uses simple technologies and is applied to a single type of environment. Hybrid techniques are the next generation of positioning technique that is supporting the real and com plex environment. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the mobile positioning techniques and systems. A total of 21 positioning systems published between the years 2012 and 2018 in the top 5 most popular indexed databases are reviewed. The positioning techniques are identified and streamlined through a methodical process, and the selected ones are reviewed using derived parameters. This paper provides a significant review of the current state of the mobile positioning techniques and outlines the research issues that require more investigation.
A Study on Improving Secure Routing Performance Using Trust Model in MANET
MANET is utilized in many fields because of its advantage in quickly establishing networks. The network will perform well if mobile nodes trust each other and act cooperatively. However, dynamic topology characteristics and frequent connection failures by the movement of nodes make routing difficult and cause vulnerability to be easily exposed. Therefore, the routing provided in the MANET should have security features that can reduce the damage to various attacks. For this, in this paper, it is proposed for a trust evaluation method of nodes using cluster structure and a secure data transmission technique through key exchange without CA. The proposed technique adopted a hierarchical structure to enhance the efficiency of the reliability evaluation of nodes. The reliability measurement reflects the quality of packets as well as the number of packets and the measured reliability is maintained by the trust management node. The integrity of the data transmission is improved through key exchange without CA between the nodes. In order to increase the efficiency of routing, anomaly nodes are detected by DSN checking of nodes that generate excessive traffic on the path when data is transmitted. The proposed technique in this paper can maintain stably the network performance even in the presence of malicious nodes because it ensures reliability evaluation for nodes and the path setting between nodes and secure data transmission. The superior performance of the proposed trust-based model security routing technique was confirmed through comparative experiments for packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay time, the number of control packets, network throughput, and average path length.
The Mean First Passage Time of the Stochastic Resonance Driven by Dual-Sequence-Frequency-Hopping Signal and Noise
The mean first passage time (MFPT) represents the dynamic characteristic of stochastic resonance (SR). The study focuses on how can the Dual-Sequence-Frequency-Hopping (DSFH) signal influence the MFPT and any difficulty in solving the MFPT problem considering the DSFH signal. In this current study, the SR system driven by DSFH signal and Gaussian white noise is described with the parameters of the signal amplitude, the frequency of Intermediate Frequency (IF) of the receptive DSFH signal, the SR system parameter, scale transformation coefficient, the noise intensity, and the sampling multiple, firstly. Secondly, under the assumption that MFPT is small aqueous about the domain of 0, the nonautonomous differential equation with MFPT is transformed to a nonhomogeneous differential equation with one unknown variable coefficient of second order. Finally, the numerical solution of MFPT can be obtained by the method of Runge–Kutta. Theoretical and simulation results are shown as below: (1) the effect of the signal amplitude, the IF frequency, the noise intensity, the SR system parameter, and the scale transformation coefficient, for decrease the MFPT, are positive; however, the effect of the sampling multiple is negative; (2) the MFPT cannot follow the dynamic period of the SR controlled by the IF frequency, when SNR is low; (3) when SNR = −12 dB, the sampling multiple is 200, the IF frequency is 2100, and the duty cycle reaches 25% (available for DSFH signal detection with peek or valley decision Liu et al. (2019)), so we need to decrease the IF frequency or increase the SNR for further availability.