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Mobile Information Systems
Volume 2016, Article ID 2719576, 17 pages
Research Article

Indoor Localisation Based on GSM Signals: Multistorey Building Study

1Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
2Orange Labs Poland, Obrzeżna 7, 02-691 Warsaw, Poland

Received 8 January 2016; Accepted 28 March 2016

Academic Editor: Robert Piché

Copyright © 2016 Rafał Górak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Among the accurate indoor localisation systems that are using WiFi, Bluetooth, or infrared technologies, the ones that are based on the GSM rely on a stable external infrastructure that can be used even in an emergency. This paper presents an accurate GSM indoor localisation system that achieves a median error of 4.39 metres in horizontal coordinates and up to 64 percent accuracy in floor prediction (for 84 percent of cases the floor prediction is mistaken by not more than a single floor). The test and reference measurements were made inside a six-floor academic building, with an irregular shape, whose dimensions are around 50 metres by 70 metres. The localisation algorithm uses GSM signal readings from the 7 strongest cells available in the GSM standard (or fewer, if fewer than 7 are available). We estimate the location by a three-step method. Firstly, we propose a point localisation solution (i.e., localisation based on only one measurement). Then, by applying the central tendency filters and the Multilayer Perceptron, we build a localisation system that uses a sequence of estimations of current and past locations. We also discuss major accuracy factors such as the number of observed signals or the types of spaces in the building.