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Mobile Information Systems
Volume 2016, Article ID 6157904, 14 pages
Research Article

Reducing Spectrum Handoffs and Energy Switching Consumption of MADM-Based Decisions in Cognitive Radio Networks

1Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), Av. Salvador Nava Mtz. s/n, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosí, SLP, Mexico
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 5 de Febrero 818, Col. Centro, 85000 Ciudad Obregón, SON, Mexico

Received 5 February 2016; Revised 22 October 2016; Accepted 1 November 2016

Academic Editor: Francesco Gringoli

Copyright © 2016 Rafael Aguilar-Gonzalez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In a cognitive radio network (CRN), the number of spectrum handoffs increases energy consumption of cognitive (or secondary) users due to the channel switching process. This might limit the operation of the CRN, especially in scenarios where secondary users terminals are battery-powered. Thus, reducing the number of times a cognitive user involved in a transmission switch to different spectrum holes is required to increase battery life-time. In this regard, available spectrum holes possess different attributes (e.g., bandwidth) that can be exploited to satisfy specific secondary users requirements (i.e., connection profile) for data transmission while saving energy. Here, three multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) algorithms for the spectrum decision functionality are evaluated using real spectrum measurements of TV bands. This is performed by proposing six decision parameters, which are extracted from the spectrum data to characterize its suitability. Then, these are used as inputs of the MADM algorithms to select the most suitable spectrum hole for a cognitive user. Thus, an enhanced MADM-based decision process is proposed to reduce the number of handoffs considering energy consumption due to channel switching (ECCS). Results quantify savings from 30% to 90% in ECCS and spectrum handoffs reductions from 47% to 90%.