Table 2: Error accuracies and modeling descriptions in simulations.

Error typeError accuracyModeling description

GPS code measurement noise0.5 m (1σ)Gaussian white noise model with mean value of 0 m and standard deviation of 0.5 m
GPS carrier phase measurement noise0.002 m (1σ)AR(2) model with mean value of 0 m and standard deviation of 0.002 m
Ground calibration error of GPS receiver antenna phase centerARP data, PCO data, and PCVs data (mean value data and RMS data) of SEN67-1575-14+CRG
Attitude measurement errorFixed bias of 0.005° in the yaw, pitch, and roll components plus a 0.003° (1σ) random errorGaussian white noise model with mean value of 0.005° and standard deviation of 0.003° in the yaw, pitch, and roll components
Fixing error of GPS receiver antenna0.5 mm (3σ)A fixed vector with direction randomly drawn in unit ball and magnitude of 0.5 mm in each satellite body coordinate system
Consistency error of SAR antenna phase center0.25 mm (3σ)A fixed vector with direction randomly drawn in unit ball and magnitude of 0.25 mm in body coordinate system of Satellite 1