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Mathematical Problems in Engineering has retracted this article. The article was found to contain a substantial amount of material, without citation, from the following published article: “Cho, B. R., Choi, Y. & Shin, S. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2010) 49: 839. doi:10.1007/s00170-009-2455-3” [2]. The authors stated that the previous article used censored data and the current article used noncensored data, which require different techniques to manage. The authors say that in the previous work, type 2 right-censoring schemes were developed and implemented in the robust design context, and thus the basic goals posed and the methods developed in the articles are entirely different. However, much of the text of the articles is the same, including most of the Introduction, Section , and Conclusions and parts of Sections and .

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  1. B. R. Cho and S. Shin, “Quality improvement and robust design methods to a pharmaceutical research and development,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2012, Article ID 193246, 2012.
  2. B. R. Cho, Y. Choi, and S. Shin, “Development of censored data-based robust design for pharmaceutical quality by design,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 49, no. 9–12, pp. 839–851, 2010.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 193246, 14 pages
Research Article

Quality Improvement and Robust Design Methods to a Pharmaceutical Research and Development

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
2Department of Systems Management & Engineering, Inje University, Gyeongnam Gimhae 621-749, Republic of Korea

Received 19 November 2011; Accepted 18 April 2012

Academic Editor: Dongdong Ge

Copyright © 2012 Byung Rae Cho and Sangmun Shin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Researchers often identify robust design, based on the concept of building quality into products or processes, as one of the most important systems engineering design concepts for quality improvement and process optimization. Traditional robust design principles have often been applied to situations in which the quality characteristics of interest are typically time-insensitive. In pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, time-oriented quality characteristics, such as the degradation of a drug, are often of interest. As a result, current robust design models for quality improvement which have been studied in the literature may not be effective in finding robust design solutions. In this paper, we show how the robust design concepts can be applied to the pharmaceutical production research and development by proposing experimental and optimization models which should be able to handle the time-oriented characteristics. This is perhaps the first attempt in the robust design field. An example is given, and comparative studies are discussed for model verification.