Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 248175, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/248175
Research Article

Application of Integer and Fractional Models in Electrochemical Systems

Department of Electrical Engineering, Superior Institute of Engineering of Porto (ISEP), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal

Received 4 July 2011; Revised 7 October 2011; Accepted 8 October 2011

Academic Editor: Katica R. (Stevanovic) Hedrih

Copyright © 2012 Isabel S. Jesus and J. A. Tenreiro Machado. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This paper describes the use of integer and fractional electrical elements, for modelling two electrochemical systems. A first type of system consists of botanical elements and a second type is implemented by electrolyte processes with fractal electrodes. Experimental results are analyzed in the frequency domain, and the pros and cons of adopting fractional-order electrical components for modelling these systems are compared.

1. Introduction

Fractional calculus (FC) is a generalization of the integration and differentiation to a noninteger order. The fundamental operator is , where the order is a real or even, a complex number and the subscripts and represent the two limits of the operation [18].

Recent studies brought FC into attention revealing that many physical phenomena can be modelled by fractional differential equations [917]. The importance of fractional-order models is that they yield a more accurate description and lead to a deeper insight into the physical processes underlying a long-range memory behavior.

Capacitors are one of the crucial elements in integrated circuits and are used extensively in many electronic systems [18]. However, Jonscher [19] demonstrated that the ideal capacitor cannot exist in nature, because an impedance of the form would violate causality [20, 21]. In fact, the dielectric materials exhibit a fractional behavior yielding electrical impedances of the form , with [22, 23].

Bearing these ideas in mind, this paper analyzes the fractional modelling of several electrical devices and is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the fundamental concepts of electrical impedances. Sections 3 and 4 describe botanical elements and fractal capacitors, respectively, and present the experimental results for both cases. Finally, Section 5 draws the main conclusions.

2. On the Electrical Impedance

In an electrical circuit, the voltage and the current can be expressed as a function of time : where and are the amplitudes of the signals, is the angular frequency, and is the current phase shift. The voltage and current can be expressed in complex form as where represents the real part and .

Consequently, in complex form, the electrical impedance is given by the expression: Fractional-order elements occur in several fields of engineering [24]. A brief reference about the constant phase element (CPE) and the Warburg impedance is presented here due to their application in the work. In fact, to model an electrochemical phenomenon, it often used a CPE due to the fact that the surface is not homogeneous [24].

In the case of a CPE, we have the model: where is a “capacitance” of fractional order , occurring at the classical ideal capacitor when [25, 26].

It is well known that, in electrochemical systems with diffusion, the impedance is modelled by the so-called Warburg element [24, 26]. The Warburg element arises from one-dimensional diffusion of an ionic species to the electrode. If the impedance is under an infinite diffusion layer, the Warburg impedance is given by where is the diffusion resistance. If the diffusion process has finite length, the Warburg element becomes with , where is the diffusion resistance, is the diffusion time constant, is the diffusion layer thickness, and is the diffusion coefficient [26, 27].

Based on these concepts, and in the previous works developed by the authors [12, 2629], we verify that the of the fruits, vegetables, and also fractal capacitors exhibit distinct characteristics according with the frequency range.

This different behavior, for low and for high frequencies, makes difficult the modelling of these systems in all frequency range. This fact motivated the study of both systems with different type of electrical approximation circuits, namely, the use of series and parallel two-element associations of integer and fractional order.

Table 1 shows simple series and parallel element associations of integer and fractional order for constructing electrical circuits, that are adopted in this work.

tab1
Table 1: Elementar circuits of integer and fractional order.

In this line of thought, in the following two sections, the impedances of botanical and fractal electrolyte systems are analyzed. In both cases, a large number of measurements were performed in order to understand and minimize the effect of nonlinearities, initial conditions, and experimental and instrumentation limitations.

3. Botanical Elements

The structures of fruits and vegetables have cells that are sensitive to heat, pressure, and other stimuli. These systems constitute electrical circuits exhibiting a complex behavior. Bearing these facts in mind, in our work, we study the electrical impedance of the Solanum tuberosum (the common potato) and the Actinidia deliciosa (the common Kiwi), under the point of view of FC.

We apply sinusoidal excitation signals to the botanical system for several distinct frequencies and the impedance is measured based on the resulting voltage and current .

We start by analyzing the impedance for an amplitude of input signal of volt, a constant adaptation resistance  kΩ, applied to one potato, with a weight  kg, environmental temperature °C, dimension  m, and electrode length penetration  m. Figure 1 presents the corresponding polar and Nichols diagrams for the .

fig1
Figure 1: Polar and Nichols diagrams of the impedance for the Solanum tuberosum.

For the approximate modelling of the results presented in Figure 1, we must have in mind the polar plots of the impedance for the circuits presented in Table 1.

In the botanical system are applied the circuits and , for modelling . It minimized the errors for the Polar diagram and for the Nichols diagram, between the experimental data , and the approximation model , in the perspective of the expressions: where , , , , , and , and where is the frequency range.

The resulting numerical values of for the different impedances are depicted in Tables 2 and 3 for and , respectively. It is possible to analyze the approximation errors and as function as the number of electrical elements and the number of parameters to be adjusted for the circuits and . We verify a significant decreasing of the errors and , respectively, for the polar and Nichols diagrams, with the number of elements and parameters. In Figure 2, we present the polar and Nichols diagrams for , and the approximations , , and for and , for the Solanum tuberosum. The results for circuits are not presented because they lead to severe errors.

tab2
Table 2: Comparison of circuit parameters for the circuits and , with and for the Solanum tuberosum.
tab3
Table 3: Comparison of circuit parameters for the circuits and , with and for the Solanum tuberosum.
fig2
Figure 2: Polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations for of the electrical impedance of the Solanum tuberosum for and , respectively.

In a second experiment, we organized similar studies for a Kiwi. In this case, the constant adaptation resistance is  Ω, with a weight  kg, dimension  m. Figure 3 presents the polar and the Nichols diagrams for .

fig3
Figure 3: Polar and Nichols diagrams of the impedance for the Actinidia deliciosa.

In this case, for modelling , we apply again the circuits adopted for the potato, namely, the circuits and , and the same expressions for the error measures . The resulting numerical values of for the different impedances are depicted in Tables 4 and 5, for and , respectively. We can analyze the approximation errors and as function as the number of electrical elements and the number of parameters to be adjusted for the circuits and , for the Actinidia deliciosa.

tab4
Table 4: Comparison of circuit parameters for and , with and for the Actinidia deliciosa.
tab5
Table 5: Comparison of circuit parameters for and , with and for the Actinidia deliciosa.

We verify that a significant decreasing of the error and with the number of elements and parameters occurs. In Figure 4, we present the polar and Nichols diagrams for , and the approximations , , for the Actinidia deliciosa revealing a very good fit.

fig4
Figure 4: Polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations , of the electrical impedance of the Actinidia deliciosa for and , respectively.

4. Fractal Capacitors

Fractals can be found both in nature and abstract objects. The impact of the fractal structures and geometries, is presently recognized in engineering, physics, chemistry, economy, mathematics, art, and medicine [9, 30].

The concept of fractal is associated with Benoit Mandelbrot, that led to a new perception of the geometry of the nature [31]. However, the concept was initially proposed by several well-known mathematicians, such as George Cantor (1872), Giuseppe Peano (1890), David Hilbert (1891), Helge von Koch (1904), Waclaw Sierpinski (1916), Gaston Julia (1918), and Felix Hausdorff (1919).

A geometric important index consists in the fractal dimension that represents the occupation degree in the space and that is related with its irregularity. The is given by where represents the number of boxes, with size resulting from the subdivision of the original structure. This is not the only description for the fractal geometry, but it is enough for the identification of groups with similar geometries.

In this work, we adopted the classical fractal Carpet of Sierpinski and the Triangle of Sierpinski with and , respectively.

The simplest capacitors are constituted by two parallel electrodes separated by a layer of insulating dielectric. There are several factors susceptive of influencing the characteristics of a capacitor [32]. However, three of them have a special importance, namely, the surface area of the electrodes, the distance among them, and the material that constitutes the dielectric. In this study, the capacitors adopt electrodes that are construted with the fractal structures of Carpet of Sierpinski and Triangle of Sierpinski. The size of the fractals was adjusted so that their copper surface yields identical values, namely,  m2.

We apply sinusoidal excitation signals to the apparatus, for several distinct frequencies , and the impedance between the electrodes is measured based on the resulting voltage and current .

For the first experiment with fractal structures, we consider two identical single-face electrodes. The voltage, the adaptation resistance , and the distance between electrodes are, respectively,  V, kΩ, and  m. The electrolyte process consists in an aqueous solution of NaCl with gl−1 and two single-face copper electrodes with the Carpet of Sierpinski printout.

The resulting polar and Nichols diagrams of the electrical impedance are depicted in Figure 5. For this chart, we apply the circuits in Table 2. The resulting numerical values of for the different impedances are shown in Tables 6 and 7, for and , respectively.

tab6
Table 6: Comparison of circuit parameters for , with and for the Carpet of Sierpinski.
tab7
Table 7: Comparison of circuit parameters for , with and for the Carpet of Sierpinski.
fig5
Figure 5: Polar and Nichols diagrams of the impedance for the Carpet of Sierpinski.

We can analyze the approximation errors and as function as the number of electrical elements and the number of parameters to be adjusted for the circuits . The tables reveal that the error decreases with the introduction of the fractional-order elements. Figure 6 presents the polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations , for.

fig6
Figure 6: Polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations , of the electrical impedance of the Carpet of Sierpinski for and , respectively.

In order to study the influence of the fractal printed in the surface of the electrode, we adopted another fractal, namely, the Triangle of Sierpinski.

In this case the voltage, , , the solution and the area remain identical to the previous example.

The resulting polar and Nichols diagrams of the electrical impedance is depicted in Figure 7. For this chart, we apply the circuits in Table 1. The resulting numerical values of for the different impedances are shown in Tables 8 and 9, for and , respectively. We analyze the approximation errors and as function as the number of electrical elements and the number of parameters to be adjusted for . The results lead to the same conclusions, revealing that the error decreases with the introduction of the fractional-order elements. Figure 8 presents the polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations for .

tab8
Table 8: Comparison of circuit parameters for , with and for the Triangle of Sierpinski.
tab9
Table 9: Comparison of circuit parameters for , with and for the Triangle of Sierpinski.
fig7
Figure 7: Polar and Nichols diagrams of the impedance for the Triangle of Sierpinski.
fig8
Figure 8: Polar and Nichols diagrams of and the approximations , of the electrical impedance of the Triangle of Sierpinski for and , respectively.

In conclusion, we verify that, in general, the adoption of fractional electrical elements leads to modelling circuits well adapted to the experimental data and that this direction of research should be further explored in other complex systems.

5. Conclusions

FC is a mathematical tool applied in scientific areas such as electricity, magnetism, fluid dynamics, and biology. In this paper, FC concepts were applied to the analysis of electrical fractional impedances, in botanical elements and in electrical capacitors with fractal characteristics. The introduction of the CPE element in the electric circuits led us to conclude that, for the same number of elements, we have a better approximation model and consequently a decrease in the error value. The different configurations of the polar and Nichols diagrams of the systems studied led us to modelling the systems through electrical circuit with different configurations (series and parallel) and the combination of integer and fractional-order elements in the circuits.

References

  1. K. B. Oldham and J. Spanier, The Fractional Calculus, vol. 11 of Mathematics in Science and Engineering, Academic Press, London, UK, 1974. View at Zentralblatt MATH
  2. K. B. Oldham and J. Spanier, Fractional Calculus: Theory and Application of Differentiation and Integration to Arbitrary Order, Academic Press, London, UK, 1974. View at Zentralblatt MATH
  3. S. G. Samko, A. A. Kilbas, and O. I. Marichev, Fractional Integrals and Derivatives: Theory and Applications, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Yverdon, Switzerland, 1993. View at Zentralblatt MATH
  4. K. S. Miller and B. Ross, An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Zentralblatt MATH
  5. A. A. Kilbas, H. M. Srivastava, and J. J. Trujillo, Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations, vol. 204 of North-Holland Mathematics Studies, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH
  6. D. Monda and K. Biswas, “Electrical equivalent modeling of single component fractional order element with porous surface,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM '11), pp. 312–316, August 2011.
  7. D. Mondal and K. Biswas, “Performance study of fractional order integrator using single-component fractional order element,” IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 334–342, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. K. Biswas, Studies on design, development and performance analysis of capacitive type sensors, Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, 2007.
  9. A. Carpinteri and F. Mainardi, Fractals and Fractional Calculus in Continuum Mechanics, vol. 378 of CISM Courses and Lectures, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 1997.
  10. L. Debnath, Fractional Calculus and Its Applications, 2002.
  11. J. A. T. Machado and I. S. Jesus, “A suggestion from the past?” FCAA—Journal of Fractional Calculus & Applied Analysis, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 403–407, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. I. S. Jesus, J. A. T. Machado, J. B. Cunha, and M. F. Silva, “Fractional order electrical impedance of fruits and vegetables,” in Proceedings of the 25th IASTED International Conference on Modelling, Identification, and Control (MIC '06), pp. 489–494, January 2006. View at Scopus
  13. R. L. Magin, Fractional Calculus in Bioengineering, Begell House Connecticut, Paris, France, 2006.
  14. D. Baleanu, A. K. Golmankhaneh, and R. R. Nigmatullin, “Newtonian law with memory,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 81–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  15. S. Bhalekar, V. Daftardar-Gejji, D. Baleanu, and R. Magin, “Fractional Bloch equation with delay,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1355–1365, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH
  16. C. M. Ionescu and R. D. Keyser, “Relations between fractional-order model parameters and lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 56, no. 4, Article ID 4667643, pp. 978–987, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. R. S. Hedrih, “Energy transfer in the hybrid system dynamics (energy transfer in the axially moving double belt system),” Archive of Applied Mechanics, vol. 79, no. 6-7, pp. 529–540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Samavati, A. Hajimiri, A. R. Shahani, G. N. Nasserbakht, and T. H. Lee, “Fractal capacitors,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2035–2041, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. K. Jonscher, Dielectric Relaxation in Solids, Chelesea Dielectric Press, London, UK, 1993.
  20. G. W. Bohannan, Analog Realization of a Fractional Order Control Element, Wavelength Electronics, Bozeman, Mo, USA, 2002.
  21. G. W. Bohannan, Interpretation of Complex Permittivity in Pure and Mixed Crystals, Wavelength Electronics.
  22. S. Westerlund and L. Ekstam, “Capacitor theory,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 826–839, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Westerlund, Dead Matter has Memory!, Causal Consulting, Kalmar, Sweden, 2002.
  24. E. Barsoukov and J. R. Macdonald, Impedance Spectroscopy, Theory, Experiment, and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
  25. I. S. Jesus, J. A. T. Machado, and J. B. Cunha, “Fractional electrical dynamics in fruits and vegetables,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications (FDA '06), pp. 374–379, 2006.
  26. I. S. Jesus, J. A. Tenreiro MacHado, and J. Boaventure Cunha, “Fractional electrical impedances in botanical elements,” Journal of Vibration and Control, vol. 14, no. 9-10, pp. 1389–1402, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. I. S. Jesus and J. A. T. MacHado, “Development of fractional order capacitors based on electrolyte processes,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 56, no. 1-2, pp. 45–55, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  28. I. S. Jesus, J. A. T. Machado, and M. F. Silva, “Fractional order capacitors,” in Proceedings of the 27th IASTED International Conference on Modelling, Identification, and Control (MIC '08), February 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  29. I. S. Jesus, J. A. T. Machado, and R. S. Barbosa, “Fractional modelling of the electrical conduction in nacl electrolyte,” in Proceedings of the 6th EUROMECH Conference (ENOC '08), Saint Petersburg, RUSSIA, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Le Méhauté, R. R. Nigmatullin, and L. Nivanen, Flèches du Temps et Géométrie Fractale, Hermès, Paris, France, 2nd edition, 1998.
  31. K. Falconer, Fractal Geometry—Mathematical Foundations and Application, John Wiley & Sons, England, UK, 1990.
  32. I. S. Jesus and J. A. T. Machado, “Comparing integer and fractional models in some electrical systems,” in Proceedings of the 4th IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications (FDA '10), Badajoz, Spain, October 2010.