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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 351894, 42 pages
Research Article

On Modelling of Two-Wire Transmission Lines with Uniform Passive Ladders

1Department of Physics & Electrical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
2Department of General Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3Department of Telecommunications, School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Received 23 March 2012; Accepted 1 May 2012

Academic Editor: Kue-Hong Chen

Copyright © 2012 D. B. Kandić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the paper we presented new results in incremental network modelling of two-wire lines in frequency range [0,3] [GHz], by the uniform RLCG ladders with frequency dependent RL parameters, which are analyzed by using PSPICE. Some important frequency limitations of the proposed approach have been pinpointed, restricting the application of developed models to steady-state analysis of RLCG networks transmitting the limited-frequency-band signals. The basic intention of this approach is to circumvent solving of telegraph equations or application of other complex, numerically demanding procedures in determining line steady-state responses at selected equidistant points. The key to the modelling method applied is partition of the two-wire line in segments with defined maximum length, whereby a couple of new polynomial approximations of line transcendental functions is introduced. It is proved that the strict equivalency between the short-line segments and their uniform ladder counterparts does not exist, but if some conditions are met, satisfactory approximations could be produced. This is illustrated by several examples of short and moderately long two-wire lines with different terminations, proving the good agreement between the exactly obtained steady-state results and those obtained by PSPICE simulation.