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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 743728, 19 pages
Research Article

An Immune Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Fault-Tolerant Routing Optimization in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

1College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
2Engineering Research Center of Digitized Textile and Fashion Technology, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China

Received 26 May 2011; Accepted 3 August 2011

Academic Editor: Jinling Liang

Copyright © 2012 Yifan Hu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The fault-tolerant routing problem is important consideration in the design of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (H-WSNs) applications, and has recently been attracting growing research interests. In order to maintain 𝑘 disjoint communication paths from source sensors to the macronodes, we present a hybrid routing scheme and model, in which multiple paths are calculated and maintained in advance, and alternate paths are created once the previous routing is broken. Then, we propose an immune cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (ICPSOA) in the model to provide the fast routing recovery and reconstruct the network topology for path failure in H-WSNs. In the ICPSOA, mutation direction of the particle is determined by multi-swarm evolution equation, and its diversity is improved by immune mechanism, which can enhance the capacity of global search and improve the converging rate of the algorithm. Then we validate this theoretical model with simulation results. The results indicate that the ICPSOA-based fault-tolerant routing protocol outperforms several other protocols due to its capability of fast routing recovery mechanism, reliable communications, and prolonging the lifetime of WSNs.