Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 407436, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/407436
Research Article

Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

1Centre for High Performance Computing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China

Received 26 April 2013; Revised 16 July 2013; Accepted 16 July 2013

Academic Editor: Ningsu Luo

Copyright © 2013 Xiuchun Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

1. Introduction

Chaos synchronization has been a hot topic since the pioneering work of Pecora and Carroll [1]. Various methods and techniques have been proposed for the control and synchronization of chaotic systems. In the past, most synchronizing techniques, such as linear and nonlinear feedback control [24], adaptive control [5, 6], sliding mode control [7, 8], and the liner matrix inequality (LMI) technique [9], have been designed for realizing synchronization of chaotic system.

Amongst all kinds of chaos synchronization, projective synchronization (PS), which was first reported by Mainieri and Rehacek [10], has been extensively investigated in the recent years because it can obtain faster communication with its proportional feature. this means that the drive and response systems can synchronize up to a scaling factor. Subsequently, Chen et al. [11] put forward another new projective synchronization, which is called function projective synchronization (FPS). Function projective synchronization is that the chaotic signals of the drive and response systems can synchronize up to a scaling function factor. Recently, some researchers [12, 13] have proposed a new synchronization scheme, called generalized function projective synchronization (GFPS), which is an extension of FPS. GFPS is more generalized and can give information transmission more security in secure communication. Wang and Fan [12] and Li and Zhao [13] have, respectively, used the state observer and adaptive controller to realize GFPS of a class of chaotic systems. It is a pity that they have not considered the influence of external perturbations.

In practice, the uncertainties and external disturbances affect the whole dynamics of the systems. So Yang and Ou [14] have discussed complete synchronization and antisynchronization of chaotic gyros with external perturbations using adaptive sliding mode control. But this method is not universal due to the discussion for specific chaotic system. Xiang and Chen [15] and Aghababa and Akbari [16] have all proposed sliding mode control method to synchronize two different chaotic systems with disturbances. Unfortunately, they [15, 16] only realize complete synchronization, and the parameters of the system in [1416] are all known.

So, in this paper, we will extend adaptive sliding mode control method to realize GFPS of a class of chaotic systems with unknown parameters. According to two major stages of sliding mode design, we firstly give sliding mode surface, and the controlled system is robust to external perturbations on this surface. Secondly, adaptive sliding mode controller and the update laws of unknown parameters are given in order to make the system reach and subsequently stay on the sliding surface from any initial values. Finally two different chaotic systems are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, and it can be found that the designed controller has stronger robustness when both drive and response systems are all perturbed with external disturbances.

2. Description of Chaotic System

Consider a class of chaotic systems with unknown parameters which can be described as

where denotes the state vector, are nonlinear functions, and are unknown parameters.

Take system (1) as the drive system; the response system, different from the system (1), with a controller , is as follows:

where is the state vector of the system (2), are nonlinear functions, and are unknown parameters of the system (2).

Define the error between the drive and response systems as

where the error vector is ; , are called scaling function factors, which compose the scaling function matrix .

And suppose ; the synchronization error can be obtained in the following compact form:

We say that generalized function projective synchronization (GFPS) with respect to the scaling function matrix is realized between the drive system (1) and response system (2) if a controller is designed such that the error system (4) can be achieved in the sense that

From the definition of GFPS, we know that the synchronization between two different chaotic systems with unknown parameters is that a controller U and a corresponding parameter update law are chosen to make the error system asymptotically converge to zero.

Remark 1. For the scaling function matrix , if , GFPS is simplified to FPS. If are all real constants, then FPS becomes PS. In particular, if , FPS problem is antisynchronization, and if , FPS turns to complete synchronization. So we can flexibly choose the scaling function matrix for the actual requirement in engineering.

3. Design of the Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller

As we know, all systems are inevitably influenced by exotic perturbations. For a chaotic system, small error may lead to serious deterioration of synchronic performance because of the Butterfly Effect. Among many control methods, sliding mode control is a robust control method which has many interesting features such as fast response, low sensitivity to external disturbances, robustness to the plant uncertainties, and easy realization. So, in this paper, we use sliding mode control method to design a controller to realize GFPS.

Generally speaking, sliding mode design involves two major stages; the first step is selecting a switching surface such that the sliding motion is asymptotically stable and has a prescribed performance. And, in this paper, we define switching surface as

where the sliding surface parameters are positive constants.

Secondly, a controller is designed to guarantee that the system can reach and subsequently stay on the sliding surface. We adopt an adaptive sliding mode controller as

where and are adaptation coefficients which tune the gain and steepness of the tanh function, respectively. The parameters and are estimates of parameter values and . And their update laws are in the following:

where , , , and are all positive constants, and and are the initial values of and .

Theorem 2. For the given continuous differential scaling matrix function , if the parameters are greater than or equal to zero, where , the error system will converge to the sliding surface when one chooses the sliding mode controller (7) and the parameter update law (8).

Proof. Choose the Lyapunov function as
Taking derivative of the Lyapunov function with respect to time, one has
where .
For a given error system, if we deduce that is greater than or equal to zero, that is, , the following conclusions will be derived:
where . Integrating (11) from zero to yields
as approach infinite, and is positive and bounded, so exits and is finite. By Barbalat lemma, we have
Now, one will ask, “how can we conclude ?” and from theirs expressions, we can see that it is hard to conclude by means of formula derivation. But we can get it with computer simulation, which will be seen in the following concrete example.
If the parameters are greater than or equal to zero, the sliding mode controller and the parameter update law are chosen by (7) and (8). this concludes that are equal to zero when the system is operating on the sliding surface, and (6) is satisfied, so GFPS of the drive system (1) and response system (2) can be achieved as time goes on.

Remark 3. As we know, the conventional sliding mode controllers often use the sign function [17, 18], but the discontinuity of the sign function causes the chattering. In order to avoid the chattering, the discontinuous sign function is replaced by the continuous tanh function with the adaptive gain and steepness. As in [15, 16], the function is used as an approximate of the sign function.

4. Numerical Simulations

In this section, we take two different systems as the drive and response systems, respectively, to validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

The drive system is the Lorenz system, which is the following mathematical expression:

where is the state vector of the system (14), and is the parameter vector of (14). When these parameters are taken as , , and , the system is chaotic.

The Genesio-Tesi (GT) system is chosen as the response system, and the expression with a controller is

where is the state vector of the system (15) and is the parameter vector of (15). When these parameters are taken as , , and , the system is chaotic.

In numerical simulation, the scaling function matrix is chosen as

and then the derivative of can be derived as

where the parameters , , , , , , ,, , , , and .

Now, the parameters , , and of the error system are firstly simulated with the help of the computer. The sliding surface parameters are all selected as 1.5. Vectors and are selected as the initial conditions of the Lorenz and GT systems, respectively. And vectors and are selected as the initial values of the adaptation vector parameters and . And the initial values of adaptation coefficients are chosen as and . The corresponding parameters are chosen as , , , , , and .

Figure 1 gives time evolution of the parameters , , and of the error system. It shows that , , and are greater than zero in the first few seconds and , , and become zero rapidly as time goes on. According to Theorem 2, the control inputs are obtained by (7)

fig1
Figure 1: Time evolution of the parameters , , and of the error system.

where the parameter and ; their update laws can be obtained by (8). Thus, GFPS of the Lorenz system (14) and response system (15) can be realized.

Figure 2 shows time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT systems, without exotic perturbation. We can see that, with the adaptive sliding mode controller (18), the GFPS errors converge to zero rapidly, which verifies that our proposed method is feasible. Further, Figure 3 gives time evolution of the controller, , , and . It shows that the chattering phenomenon does not really occur by the use of the continuous tanh function with the adaptive gain and steepness.

fig2
Figure 2: Time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT system without exotic perturbation.
fig3
Figure 3: Time evolution of the controller , , and .

Figures 4 and 5 illustrate time evolution of the parameters , , , , , , and of the error system. They show that these parameters do not converge to the parameters , , , , , and of the drive (14) and response systems (15) as time goes to infinity. So the unknown parameters cannot be estimated accurately by means of the parameters , , , , , , and . In addition, we can derive from (8) that the update laws of and will converge to zero when the error signals tend to zero, so, as time goes on, the parameters and converge to some constant and do not necessarily tend to and .

fig4
Figure 4: Time evolution of the parameters , , and of the error system.
fig5
Figure 5: Time evolution of the parameters , , and of the error system.

Figure 6 gives time evolution of the controlled signals , , and of the response system (15). It illustrates that, with the controller, the response system is still chaotic.

fig6
Figure 6: Time evolution of the controlled signals , , and of the response system (15).

To further verify the robustness of the controller, it is assumed that the drive and response systems are influenced by exotic perturbations. It is assumed that the state vector of the system (14) is perturbed by and the state vector of the system (15) is perturbed by , where and are the amplitudes of the exotic perturbations. When , that is, the systems (14) and (15) are all undisturbed by external factors, from Figure 1, we still can realize GFPS.

Further, the amplitudes are selected as . Figure 7 shows time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT systems with the amplitude 1.0. We can see that the GFPS errors converge to zero rapidly, which implies our proposed method is robust. Secondly, the amplitudes are selected as . Figure 8 shows time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT systems with the amplitude 2.5.

fig7
Figure 7: Time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT system with the amplitude 1.0.
fig8
Figure 8: Time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT system with the amplitude 2.5.

It shows that the GFPS errors and still converge to zero and slightly fluctuates around zero. Figure 9 gives time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT systems with the amplitude 3.0. It implies that the GFPS errors and still converge to zero and fluctuates around zero. The fluctuation of around zero in Figure 9 becomes a little greater than that in Figure 8. Figure 10 illustrates a comparison of time evolution of the error with different amplitudes, which further show the greater amplitude of the exotic perturbation, the greater fluctuation around zero of the GFPS errors.

fig9
Figure 9: Time evolution of GFPS errors of Lorenz and GT system with the amplitude 3.0.
fig10
Figure 10: Time evolution of the error with different amplitude.

All these results imply that our proposed method is strongly robust to exotic perturbations, especially the errors and ; they still converge to zero when the amplitude of the exotic perturbation is 3. So the method is effective.

5. Conclusions

Because the sliding mode control has some interesting features such as fast response, low sensitivity to external disturbances, robustness to the plant uncertainties, and easy realization, in this paper, we use this method to realize generalized function projective synchronization of two different chaotic systems with unknown parameters. According to two major stages of sliding mode design, we give the sliding mode surface and adaptive sliding controller. Finally, numerical simulations of two different chaotic systems are presented to show that the proposed method is effective and robust to exotic perturbations even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

Acknowledgment

This Project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 11002114, 60901076, 11102157, 11202035, and 11272258).

References

  1. L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 821–824, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  2. F. Wang and C. Liu, “A new criterion for chaos and hyperchaos synchronization using linear feedback control,” Physics Letters A, vol. 360, no. 2, pp. 274–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Wu, G. Chen, and J. Cai, “Chaos synchronization of the master-slave generalized Lorenz systems via linear state error feedback control,” Physica D, vol. 229, no. 1, pp. 52–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  4. H.-H. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, Y.-L. Lin, and C.-S. Chen, “Chaos synchronization between two different chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control,” Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications A, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 4393–4401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  5. D. B. Huang, “Simple adaptive-feedback controller for identical chaos synchronization,” Physical Review E, vol. 71, Article ID 037203, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  6. Z.-M. Ge and C.-H. Yang, “Pragmatical generalized synchronization of chaotic systems with uncertain parameters by adaptive control,” Physica D, vol. 231, no. 2, pp. 87–94, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  7. D. Zhang and J. Xu, “Projective synchronization of different chaotic time-delayed neural networks based on integral sliding mode controller,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 164–174, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  8. N. Cai, Y. Jing, and S. Zhang, “Modified projective synchronization of chaotic systems with disturbances via active sliding mode control,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1613–1620, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  9. Y. Wang, X. Xu, L. Dai, and B. Hou, “Synchronization of a class of partially unknown chaotic systems with integral observer,” in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON '10), pp. 231–235, November 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Mainieri and J. Rehacek, “Projective synchronization in three-dimensional chaotic systems,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 82, no. 15, pp. 3042–3045, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Chen, H. An, and Z. Li, “The function cascade synchronization approach with uncertain parameters or not for hyperchaotic systems,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 96–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  12. X.-Y. Wang and B. Fan, “Generalized projective synchronization of a class of hyperchaotic systems based on state observer,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 953–963, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  13. Z. Li and X. Zhao, “Generalized function projective synchronization of two different hyperchaotic systems with unknown parameters,” Nonlinear Analysis. Real World Applications, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2607–2615, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  14. C.-C. Yang and C.-J. Ou, “Adaptive terminal sliding mode control subject to input nonlinearity for synchronization of chaotic gyros,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 682–691, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  15. W. Xiang and F. Chen, “Robust synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with disturbance estimation,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 2970–2977, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  16. M. P. Aghababa and M. E. Akbari, “A chattering-free robust adaptive sliding mode controller for synchronization of two different chaotic systems with unknown uncertainties and external disturbances,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 218, no. 9, pp. 5757–5768, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  17. X. C. Li, W. Xu, and Y. Z. Xiao, “Adaptive slide mode control for a class of chaotic systems with perturbations,” Acta Physica Sinica. Wuli Xuebao, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 4721–4728, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  18. C.-C. Yang, “Robust synchronization and anti-synchronization of identical Φ6 oscillators via adaptive sliding mode control,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 331, no. 3, pp. 501–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus