Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 682795, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/682795
Research Article

Analytical Solution of Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Stretching Wall in a Porous Medium

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran, Iran
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Received 6 April 2013; Revised 18 July 2013; Accepted 18 July 2013

Academic Editor: Waqar Khan

Copyright © 2013 M. Dayyan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Boundary layer flow through a porous medium over a stretching porous wall has seen solved with analytical solution. It has been considered two wall boundary conditions which are power-law distribution of either wall temperature or heat flux. These are general enough to cover the isothermal and isoflux cases. In addition to momentum, both first and second laws of thermodynamics analyses of the problem are investigated. The governing equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The transformed ordinary equations are solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. A comprehensive parametric study is presented, and it is shown that the rate of heat transfer increases with Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and suction to the surface.

1. Introduction

Boundary layer flows over a stretching surface have application in engineering processes such as liquid composite molding, extrusion of plastic sheets, paper production, glass blowing, metal spinning, wire drawing, and hot rolling [13]. More importantly, the quality of the products, in the abovementioned processes, depends on the kinematics of stretching and the simultaneous heat and mass transfer rates during the fabrication process. Sakiadis [4, 5] and Crane [6] were the pioneers in the investigations of boundary layer flow over continuously moving surfaces that are quite different from the free stream flow over stationary flat plates. Pop and Na [7] studied free convection heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids along a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium.

The flow field of a stretching surface with a power-law velocity variation was discussed by Banks [8]. Elbashbeshy [9] investigated heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable surface heat flux. Elbashbeshy and Bazid [10] analyzed heat transfer in a porous medium over a stretching surface with internal heat generation and suction or injection. This work was extended by Cortell [11] to include power-law temperature distribution. Steady flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid flow through porous medium over a stretching sheet were studied by Sriramalu et al. [12]. Ali [13] investigated thermal boundary layer on a power-law stretched surface with suction or injection for uniform and variable surface temperatures. Recently, Pantokratoras [14] published analytical solution for velocity distribution inside a Darcy-Brinkman porous medium with a stretching boundary. Elbashbeshy [15] included thermal radiation effects in a stretching surface problem. Tamayol and Bahrami [16] understood that porous materials can be used to enhance the heat transfer rate from stretching surfaces to improve processes such as hot rolling and composite fabrication.

In view of the above, an analytical solution is developed in the present study to solve fluid flow, heat transfer in a porous medium over a porous plate with linear velocity, subjected to different power-law thermal boundary conditions. The analytical solution is successfully validated in comparison with numerical analysis. There are many effective methods for obtaining the solutions of nonlinear equation such as variational iteration method [17], Adomian method [18], and homotopy perturbation method [19, 20], and we use one of a powerful technique, namely, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) which was expressed by Liao [2124]. This method has been successfully applied to solve many types of nonlinear problems [2529] and provides us with great freedom to express solutions of a given nonlinear problem by means of different base functions. Secondly, unlike all previous analytic techniques, the homotopy analysis method always provides us with a family of solution expressions in the auxiliary parameter , even if a nonlinear problem has a unique solution. Thirdly, unlike perturbation techniques, the homotopy analysis method is independent of any small or large quantities. So, the homotopy analysis method can be applied no matter if governing equations and boundary/initial conditions of a given nonlinear problem contain small or large quantities or not.

Above all, there are no rigorous theories to direct us to choose the initial approximations, auxiliary linear operators, auxiliary functions, and auxiliary parameter . From the practical viewpoints, there are some fundamental rules such as the rule of solution expression, the rule of coefficient ergodicity, and the rule of solution existence, which play important roles within the homotopy analysis method. Unfortunately, the rule of solution expression implies such an assumption that we should have, more or less, some knowledge about a given nonlinear problem a prior. So, theoretically, this assumption impairs the homotopy analysis method, although we can always attempt some base functions even if a given nonlinear problem is completely new for us.

2. Governing Equation

Consider a steady, constant property, two-dimensional flow through a homogenous porous medium of permeability , over a stretching surface with linear velocity distribution; that is, (Figure 1). The transport properties of the medium can be assumed independent of temperature when the difference between wall and ambient temperatures is not significant [4]. The origin is kept fixed, while the wall is stretching, and the -axis is perpendicular to the surface. The governing equations are [4, 5] where and are velocity components in the and directions, respectively. is the effective viscosity which for simplicity in the present study is considered to be identical to the dynamic viscosity, . The transport properties of the porous medium such as permeability depend on their microstructure and can be calculated either using existing correlations in the literature or through experimental measurements. is the effective thermal diffusivity of the medium. The hydrodynamic boundary conditions are where is the nondimensional -coordinate and is the length of the porous plate. The following thermal boundary conditions are considered: where is the effective thermal conductivity of the medium and is a function of thermal conductivities of the fluid and solid phases and the porous medium microstructure.

682795.fig.001
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of problem.

Using dimensionless parameters, where is .

The transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equations are where is the Reynolds number. Equation (5) should be solved subject to the following boundary conditions: where is the injection parameter. Positive/negative values of show suction/injection into/from the porous surface, respectively. The wall shear stress term can be calculated as

For power-law fluid wit constant temperature and heat flux boundary conditions, respectively. Employing the definition of convective heat transfer coefficient, the local Nusselt numbers become

3. Solution of Problem by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM)

As mentioned by Liao, a solution may be expressed with different base functions, among which some converge to the exact solution of the problem faster than others. Such base functions are obviously better suited for the final solution to be expressed in terms of. Noting these facts, we have decided to express by a set of base functions of the following form: The rule of solution expression provides us with a starting point. It is under the rule of solution expression that initial approximations, auxiliary linear operators, and the auxiliary functions are determined. So, according to the rule of solution expression, we choose the initial guess and auxiliary linear operator in the following form: We choose linear operator as follows: where are constants. Let denote the embedding parameter, and let indicate nonzero auxiliary parameters. Then, we construct the following equations.

3.1. Consider Zeroth–Order Deformation Equations

For and , we have When increases from 0 to 1, then and vary from and to and . By Taylor’s theorem and using (14), we can write the following: In which and are chosen in such a way that these two series are convergent at ; therefore we have the following through (15):

3.2. Consider Mth-Order Deformation Equations

The general solutions of (17)–(23) are where to are constants that can be obtained by applying the boundary condition in (18), (21), and (22).

As discussed by Liao, the rule of coefficient ergodicity and the rule of solution existence play important roles in determining the auxiliary function and ensuring that the high-order deformation equations are closed and have solutions. In many cases, by means of the rule of solution expression and the rule of coefficient ergodicity, auxiliary functions can be uniquely determined. So we define the auxiliary function in the following form:

4. Convergence of the HAM Solution

As was mentioned in introduction, the convergence and the rate of approximation of the HAM solution strongly depend on the values of auxiliary parameter . By means of the so-called curves, it is easy to find out the so-called valid regions of to gain a convergent solution series. According to Figures 2 and 3, the acceptable range of auxiliary parameter for is and .

682795.fig.002
Figure 2: The validity for , , , and .
682795.fig.003
Figure 3: The validity for , , , and .

Figures 4 and 5 show how auxiliary parameters and vary with changing . If increases, the range of convergency of solution is restricted and then decreased.

682795.fig.004
Figure 4: The validity for various , , , and .
682795.fig.005
Figure 5: The validity for various , , , , and .

5. Results and Discussion

In the present study, the Homotopy analysis method has been used to solve the nonlinear equations of heat transfer and fluid flow over a permeable stretching wall in a porous medium. The nondimensional numbers introduced in the present analysis are Reynolds number (), Prandtl number (), and the injection number (). Another important parameter is the power of the surface temperature/heat flux distribution (), which is considered in the present study.

In order to ensure the convergence of the solution series, the variation of has been plotted at different orders of approximation in Figure 6. The comparison between results of HAM and numerical solution (Runge-Kutta) has been displayed in Table 1. It can be observed that there is a good agreement between HAM method and numerical solution. Figures 7, 8, and 9 illustrate effect of variation of wall injection/suction parameter () on velocity and temperature distribution. It can be observed that all boundary layer thickness decreased by increasing from negative to positive (from injection to suction). Figures 10, 11, and 12 show the effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profile when , , and . This figure shows that the boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness are quite opposite to that of Reynolds number. The influence of on temperature field for both types of the thermal boundary conditions considered has been studied in Figures 13 and 14. We notice that increasing reduces the thermal boundary layer thickness regardless of the boundary condition type leading to a heat transfer augmentation. Effect of Prandtl number (isothermal) on the temperature field is plotted in Figure 15. This figure shows that thermal boundary layer thickness directly depends on Prandtl number.

tab1
Table 1: The results of HAM and NS for , , and when , , , and .
682795.fig.006
Figure 6: The variation of at different orders of approximations, , , , and .
682795.fig.007
Figure 7: Velocity profile for various when , , and .
682795.fig.008
Figure 8: Temperature profile (isothermal) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.009
Figure 9: Temperature profile (isoflux) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0010
Figure 10: Velocity profile for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0011
Figure 11: Temperature profile (isothermal) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0012
Figure 12: Temperature profile (isoflux) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0013
Figure 13: Temperature profile (isothermal) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0014
Figure 14: Temperature profile (isoflux) for various when , , and .
682795.fig.0015
Figure 15: Temperature profile (isothermal) for various when , , and .

Tables 2 and 3 compare the results of HAM and numerical solution when the Reynolds number varies for , , and for isothermal and heat flux boundary conditions, respectively. It can be seen that for isothermal boundary condition with increasing Reynolds number, the wall shear stress for both boundary conditions considered here (isothermal and heat flux) and Nusselt number increase with Reynolds number for isothermal state and independent of Reynolds number for heat flux boundary condition.

tab2
Table 2: The results of HAM and NS for , when , , and for temperature.
tab3
Table 3: The results of HAM and NS for , when , , and for heat flux.

Comparison of the results of HAM and numerical solution has been shown in Tables 4 and 5 for various Prandtl numbers when , and , respectively. It can be observed that the Prandtl number has no effect on the wall shear stress for both boundary conditions and Nusselt number for heat flux boundary condition.

tab4
Table 4: The results of HAM and NS for , for various Pr when, , , and .
tab5
Table 5: The results of HAM and NS for , for various Pr when, , , and .

6. Summary and Conclusions

Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to compute wall driven flow through a porous medium over a stretching permeable surface subjected to power-law temperature and heat flux boundary conditions. The proper range of the auxiliary parameter to ensure the convergency of the solution series was obtained through the so-called curves. When compared with other analytical methods, it is clear that HAM provides highly accurate analytical solutions for nonlinear problems. Moreover, second-law (of thermodynamics) aspects of the problem are investigated. The highlights of this study are the following. (i)The nondimensional viscous boundary layer thickness has a direct relationship with Reynolds number; thus Nusselt number rate increases with . (ii)Nusselt number, wall shear stress have a reverse relationship with and mass transfer from the wall, .(iii)Increasing the Prandtl number results in reduction of thermal boundary layer thickness.

Consequently, Nusselt number increase with .

Nomenclature

: Similarity function for velocity
: Injection parameter,
: Auxiliary parameter
: Homotopy analysis method
: Auxiliary function
: Linear operator of
: Permeability of the porous medium,
: Non-linear operator
: Power of temperature/heat flux distribution
: Local Nusselt number
: Averaged Nusselt number
: Prandtl number,
:Wall heat flux coefficient,
:Reynolds number,
: Temperature
: Wall temperature coefficient,
: Velocity in direction
: Wall velocity coefficient,
: Velocity in direction
: Injection velocity,
: Positive constant
: Similarity function for temperature
: Coordinate system,
: Coordinate system,
: Volumetric rate of heat generation
: Heat generation
: Radiation parameter
: Density of the fluid
: Stream function
: Dynamic viscosity
: Effective viscosity
: Absorption coefficient
: Dimensionless similarity variable
: Kinematic viscosity.

References

  1. M. Q. Al-Odat, R. A. Damesh, and T. A. Al-Azab, “Thermal boundary layer on an exponentially stretching continuous surface in the presence of magnetic field effect,” International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 289–299, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  2. B. Yu, H. T. Chiu, Z. Ding, and L. J. Lee, “Analysis of flow and heat transfer in liquid composite molding,” International Polymer Processing, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 273–283, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Nazar, A. Ishak, and I. Pop, “Unsteady boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet in a micropolar fluid,” International Journal of Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 161–165, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  4. B. C. Sakiadis, “Boundary layer behaviour on continuous solid surfaces. I: boundary layer equations for two-dimensional and axisymmetric flow,” AIChE Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 26–28, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. B. C. Sakiadis, “Boundary layer behaviour on continuous solid surfaces. II: boundary layer behaviour on con-tinuous flat surfaces,” AIChE Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 221–225, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. L. J. Crane, “Flow past a stretching plate,” Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 645–647, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Pop and T. Y. Na, “Free convection heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids along a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Heat Transfer (ISHT '96), pp. 452–457, Beijing, China, October 1996. View at Scopus
  8. W. H. H. Banks, “Similarity solutions of the boundary layer equations for a stretching wall,” Journal de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 375–392, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  9. E. M. A. Elbashbeshy, “Heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable surface heat flux,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 1951–1954, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. M. A. Elbashbeshy and M. A. A. Bazid, “Heat transfer over a stretching surface with internal heat generation,” Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 699–703, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Cortell, “Flow and heat transfer of a fluid through a porous medium over a stretching surface with internal heat generation/absorption and suction/blowing,” Fluid Dynamics Research, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 231–245, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Sriramalu, N. Kishan, and R. J. Anand, “Steady flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid flow through porous medium over a stretching sheet,” Journal of Energy Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 23, pp. 483–495, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. E. Ali, “On thermal boundary layer on a power-law stretched surface with suction or injection,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 280–290, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Pantokratoras, “Flow adjacent to a stretching permeable sheet in a Darcy-Brinkman porous medium,” Transport in Porous Media, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 223–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. M. A. Elbashbeshy, “Radiation effect on heat transfer over a stretching surface,” Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 1107–1112, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Tamayol and M. Bahrami, “Analytical determination of viscous permeability of fibrous porous media,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 52, no. 9-10, pp. 2407–2414, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. H. He, “Variational iteration method—a kind of non-linear analytical technique: some examples,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 699–708, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Adomian, “A review of the decomposition method and some recent results for nonlinear equations,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 17–43, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  19. A. H. Nayfeh, Perturbation Methods, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  20. D. D. Ganji, “The application of He's homotopy perturbation method to nonlinear equations arising in heat transfer,” Physics Letters A, vol. 355, no. 4-5, pp. 337–341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Liao, The proposed homotopy analysis technique for the solution of nonlinear problems [Ph.D. thesis], Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1992.
  22. S. J. Liao, “Boundary element method for general nonlinear differential operators,” Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, vol. 202, pp. 91–99, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. J. Liao, “An approximate solution technique not depending on small parameters: a special example,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 371–380, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  24. S. Liao, Beyond Perturbation: Introduction to the Homotopy Analysis Method, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2003. View at MathSciNet
  25. T. Hayat and M. Khan, “Homotopy solutions for a generalized second-grade fluid past a porous plate,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 395–405, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  26. A. Fakhari, G. Domairry, and E. Ebrahimpour, “Approximate explicit solutions of nonlinear BBMB equations by homotopy analysis method and comparison with the exact solution,” Physics Letters A, vol. 368, no. 1-2, pp. 64–68, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  27. M. Dayyan, D. D. Ganji, and S. M. Seyyedi, “Application of homotopy analysis method for velocity and temperature distribution of viscose stagnation point,” International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics in Engineering and Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 189–205, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Domairry and M. Fazeli, “Homotopy analysis method to determine the fin efficiency of convective straight fins with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 489–499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Dayyan, D. D. Ganji, A. Imam, and S. M. Seyyedi, “Analytical solution of heat transfer over a flat plate with radiation for bingham non-newtonian fluid,” International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics in Engineering and Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 155–167, 2012. View at Google Scholar