A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

Table 2

Accounting method for each direct ecosystem service (DES).

DES

Method

Formula

Aesthetic

Hedonic pricing

Trees can increase real estate prices by 5–10%, which can be a basis for accounting for aesthetic value

Water conservation

Market price

DES_{1} = , where DES_{1} is the water restoration per unit area, yuan/(hm^{2}·yr), is average rainfall, mm/yr, is average evaporation, mm/yr, is the study area (hm^{2}), and is the shadow price of water, 0.67 yuan/m^{3}

Gas regulation

SO_{2} absorption

Shadow price

DES_{2} = , where DES_{2} is the value of absorbing SO_{2} of per unit area of ecosystem, yuan/(hm^{2}·yr), is ability of SO_{2} absorption of per unit area of ecosystem, ton/(hm^{2}·yr), is the engineering cost for reducing SO_{2}, 1 090 yuan/ton, and is the study area acreage (hm^{2}).

Reducing particulate matter (PM)

Substitute cost

DES_{3} = , where DES_{3} is the value of reducing PM per unit area, yuan/(hm^{2}·yr), is the ability to reduce PM per unit area, t/ (hm^{2}·yr), is the cost of reducing PM, 170 yuan/ton, and is the study area (hm^{2})

Cultural

—

The average scientific cultural value of the global temperate forest ecosystem is 99 yuan/(hm^{2}·year)

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