A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System
Accounting method for each direct ecosystem service (DES).
Trees can increase real estate prices by 5–10%, which can be a basis for accounting for aesthetic value
DES1 = , where DES1 is the water restoration per unit area, yuan/(hm2·yr), is average rainfall, mm/yr, is average evaporation, mm/yr, is the study area (hm2), and is the shadow price of water, 0.67 yuan/m3
DES2 = , where DES2 is the value of absorbing SO2 of per unit area of ecosystem, yuan/(hm2·yr), is ability of SO2 absorption of per unit area of ecosystem, ton/(hm2·yr), is the engineering cost for reducing SO2, 1 090 yuan/ton, and is the study area acreage (hm2).
Reducing particulate matter (PM)
DES3 = , where DES3 is the value of reducing PM per unit area, yuan/(hm2·yr), is the ability to reduce PM per unit area, t/ (hm2·yr), is the cost of reducing PM, 170 yuan/ton, and is the study area (hm2)
The average scientific cultural value of the global temperate forest ecosystem is 99 yuan/(hm2·year)
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